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Amarië Vëannë
Posted: Apr 20 2007, 10:30 PM 727593


the light aglow


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THE HISTORY OF MIDDLE EARTH: MORGOTH'S RING
Myths Transformed
VII.



In the last sentence of the original short version of text VII (p. 406) my
father wrote that the Eldar believed that Morgoth bred the Orcs
‘by capturing Men (and Elves) early’ (i.e. in the early days of their
existence). This indicates that his views on this subject had changed
since the Annals of Aman. For the theory of the origin of the Orcs as it
stood, in point of written record in the narratives,1 at this time see
AAm §42-5 (pp. 72-4, and commentary p. 78), and §127
(pp. 109-10, and commentary pp. 123—4). In the final form in AAm
(p. 74) ‘this is held true by the wise of Eressëa’:
all those of the Quendi that came into the hands of Melkor, ere
Utumno was broken, were put there in prison, and by slow arts of
cruelty and wickedness were corrupted and enslaved. Thus did Melkor breed the hideous race of the Orkor in envy and mockery of the Eldar, of whom they were afterwards the bitterest foes. For the Orkor had life and multiplied after the manner of the Children of Ilúvatar; and naught that had life of its own, nor the semblance thereof, could ever Melkor make since his rebellion in the Ainulin-dalë before the Beginning: so say the wise.
On the typescript of AAm my father noted against the account of the
origin of the Orcs: ‘Alter this. Orcs are not Elvish’ (p. 80).
The present text, entitled ‘Ores', is a short essay (very much a record of ‘thinking with the pen’) found in the same small collection gathered in a newspaper of 1959 as texts III and VI. Like them it was written on Merton College papers of 1955; and like text VI it makes reference to ‘Finrod and Andreth’ (see pp. 385, 390).
Orcs
Their nature and origin require more thought. They are not easy
to work into the theory and system.
(1) As the case of Aulë and the Dwarves shows, only Eru could make creatures with independent wills, and with reasoning powers. But Orcs seem to have both: they can try to cheat Morgoth / Sauron, rebel against him, or criticize him.
(2) ? Therefore they must be corruptions of something pre-existing.
(3) But Men had not yet appeared, when the Orcs already existed. Aulë constructed the Dwarves out of his memory of the Music; but Eru would not sanction the work of Melkor so as to allow the independence of the Orcs. (Not unless Orcs were ultimately remediable, or could be amended and ‘saved’?)
It also seems clear (see ‘Finrod and Andreth’) that though Melkor could utterly corrupt and ruin individuals, it is not possible to contemplate his absolute perversion of a whole people, or group of peoples, and his making that state heritable.2 [Added later: This latter must (if a fact) be an act of Eru.]
In that case Elves, as a source, are very unlikely. And are Orcs ‘immortal’, in the Elvish sense? Or trolls? It seems clearly implied in The Lord of the Rings that trolls existed in their own right, but were ‘tinkered’ with by Melkor.3
(4) What of talking beasts and birds with reasoning and speech? These have been rather lightly adopted from less ‘serious’ mythologies, but play a part which cannot now be excised. They are certainly ‘exceptions' and not much used, but sufficiently to show they are a recognized feature of the world. All other creatures accept them as natural if not common.
But true ‘rational’ creatures, ‘speaking peoples', are all of human / ‘humanoid’ form. Only the Valar and Maiar are intelligences that can assume forms of Arda at will. Huan and Sorontar could be Maiar — emissaries of Manwë.4 But unfortunately in The Lord of the Rings Gwaehir and Landroval are said to be descendants of Sorontar.5
In any case is it likely or possible that even the least of the Maiar would become Orcs? Yes: both outside Arda and in it, before the fall of Utumno. Melkor had corrupted many spirits -some great, as Sauron, or less so, as Balrogs. The least could have been primitive (and much more powerful and perilous) Orcs; but by practising when embodied procreation they would (cf. Melian) [become] more and more earthbound, unable to return to spirit-state (even demon-form), until released by death (killing), and they would dwindle in force. When released they would, of course, like Sauron, be ‘damned’: i.e. reduced to impotence, infinitely recessive: still hating but unable more and more to make it effective physically (or would not a very dwindled dead Ore-state be a poltergeist?).
But again — would Eru provide fear for such creatures? For the Eagles etc. perhaps. But not for Orcs.6
It does however seem best to view Melkor's corrupting power as always starting, at least, in the moral or theological level. Any creature that took him for Lord (and especially those who blasphemously called him Father or Creator) became soon corrupted in all parts of its being, the fëa dragging down the hröa in its descent into Morgothism: hate and destruction. As for Elves being ‘immortal’: they in fact only had enormously long lives, and were themselves physically ‘wearing out’, and suffering a slow progressive weakening of their bodies.
In summary: I think it must be assumed that ‘talking’ is not necessarily the sign of the possession of a ‘rational soul’ or fëa.7 The Orcs were beasts of humanized shape (to mock Men and Elves) deliberately perverted / converted into a more close resemblance to Men. Their ‘talking’ was really reeling off ‘records' set in them by Melkor. Even their rebellious critical words — he knew about them. Melkor taught them speech and as they bred they inherited this; and they had just as much independence as have, say, dogs or horses of their human masters. This talking was largely echoic (cf. parrots). In The Lord of the Rings Sauron is said to have devised a language for them.8
The same sort of thing may be said of Húan and the Eagles: they were taught language by the Valar, and raised to a higher level - but they still had no fear.
But Finrod probably went too far in his assertion that Melkor could not wholly corrupt any work of Eru, or that Eru would (necessarily) interfere to abrogate the corruption, or to end the being of His own creatures because they had been corrupted and fallen into evil.9
It remains therefore terribly possible there was an Elvish strain in the Orcs.10 These may then even have been mated with beasts (sterile!) - and later Men. Their life-span would be diminished. And dying they would go to Mandos and be held in prison till the End.


The text as written ends here, but my father subsequently added the following passage. The words with which it opens are a reference to text VI, Melkor Morgoth (p. 390).
See ‘Melkor’. It will there be seen that the wills of Orcs and Balrogs etc. are part of Melkor's power ‘dispersed’. Their spirit is one of hate. But hate is non-cooperative (except under direct fear). Hence the rebellions, mutinies, etc. when Morgoth seems far off. Orcs are beasts and Balrogs corrupted Maiar. Also (n.b.) Morgoth not Sauron is the source of Ore-wills. Sauron is just another (if greater) agent. Orcs can rebel against him without losing their own irremediable allegiance to evil (Morgoth). Aulë wanted love. But of course had no thought of dispersing his power. Only Eru can give love and independence. If a finite sub-creator tries to do this he really wants absolute loving obedience, but it turns into robotic servitude and becomes evil.




POVIJEST MEĐUZEMLJA: MORGOTHOV PRSTEN
Preobrazba Mitova
VII.


U posljednjoj rečenici originalne kratke verzije VII. Teksta moj otac je napisao da su Eldari vjerovali kako je Melkor uzgojio Orke 'porobljavanjem Ljudi (i Vilenjaka) u ranim danima' (tj. U ranim danima njihova postojanja). To znači da se njegov pogled na tu temu promijenio od vremena pisanja Amanskih Ljetopisa. Za toriju o podrijetlu Orka kakva je bila, u trenutku svega što je dotada bilo napisano, vidi AAm §42-5 (str. 72-4, I komentar str. 78), te §127 (str. 109-10, i komentar str. 123-4). U konačnom obliku u AAm (dtr. 74) po mudracima Eressëe istinom se smatralo da' : svi Quendi koje se dočepao Morgoth, prije no što je Utumno bio srušen, zatvoreni su, i polaganim mučenjem i okrutnošću iskvarili su se i postali robovi Melkorove volje. Tako je on u ljubomori uzgojio gnusnu rasu Orka kao ruglo Eldarima, kojima su kasnije bili najljući neprijatelji. Jer Orkor su se razmnožavali kao sva Djeca Ilúvatarova; jer ništa što je imalo svoj vlastiti život, niti sličnost toga, Melkor nije moga napraviti od svoje pobune u Ainulindalë prije Početka: tako kažu mudri.
Na papirima AAm moj otac je zabilježio pripovijest o nastanku Orka: 'Zamijeni ovo. Orci nisu Vilenjački' (str. 80). Sljedeći tekst, s naslovom 'Orci', kratak je esej (više kao zapis nastao 'misleći s olovkom') pronađen u istoj maloj kolekciji sakupljenoj u novini iz 1959 kao i tekstovi III i VI. Kao i ti tekstovi napisan je na papirima koledža Merton iz 1955; i kao tekst VI referira na 'Finrod i Andreth'. (vidi str. 385, 390).

Orci

Njihova priroda i podrijetlo zahtijevaju više razmišljanja. Nije ih lako razraditi u toeoriju i sistem.
(1) Kako nam je poznato iz slučaja Aulëa i Patuljaka, samo je eru mogao stvoriti bića sa slobodnom voljom, i razboritim moćima. Ali čini se kako Orci imaju oboje: oni mogu pokušati prevariti Mogotha/ Saurona, pobuniti se, ili ga kritizirati.
(2) ? Zbog toga moraju biti korupcija nečega što je prije postajalo.
(3) Ali Ljudi se nisu još pojavili, kad su Orci već postojali. Aulë je stvorio Patuljke po svom sjećanje iz Pjesme; ali Eru ne bi odobrio Melkorovo djelo dozvoljavcajući da Orci budu samostalni. (Osim kad bi se Orci na kraju ipak mogli 'izliječiti', popraviti ili 'spasiti'?)
Čini se jasno (vidi 'Finrod i Andreth') da premda je Melkor mogao do samog dna iskvariti i uništiti individualce, nije moguće da potpuno iskvari čitav jedan narod, ili grupu ljudi, a da to stanje bude nasljedno. [kasnije dodano: to mora biti Eruovo djelo.]
U tom slučaju Vilenjaci nije vjerojatno da su Vilenjaci izvor. I jesu li Orci 'besmrtni' u vilenjačkom smislu? Ili trolovi? Čini se jasnim u Gospodaru Prstenova da trolovi postoje u vlastitoj volji, ali je Melkor nešto 'prtljao' s njima.
(4) Što je s govorećim životinjama i pticama s razumom i govorom? Oni su lako posvojeni iz 'nižih' mitologija, ali igraju ulogu koja se sada ne može oduzeti. Oni su zasigurno 'izuzeci' i ne pojavljuju se previše, iako dovoljno da se vidi kako su prepoznatljiv element svijeta. Sva ostala bića prihvaćaju ih kao nešto sasvim prirodno iako neuobičajeno.
Ali prava 'racionalna' bića, 'bića koja govore', svi su ljudskog/ 'humanoidnog' oblika. Samo su Valari i Maiari inteligencije koje mogu u ardi poprimiti oblik kakav žele. Huan i Sorontar mogu biti i Maiari- Manwëovi izaslanici. Ali nažalost u Gospodaru Prstenova Gwaihir i Landroval se spominju kao Sorontarovi potomci. U svakom slučaju je li moguće ili vjerojatno da čak i najmanji od Maiara postane Ork? Da: i izvan arde i u njoj, prije pada Utumna. Melkor je iskvario mnoge duše-neke velika, poput saurona, ili manje, kao Balroge. Najmanje su mogli biti primitivni (i mnogo moćniji i opasniji Orci); ali kad bi se razmnožavali inkarnirani (kao Melian) postajali bi sve povezaniji sa zemljom, i ne bi im bilo moguće vratiti se u stanje duše (čak i u demonski stanje), dok ne bi bili oslobođeni smrću, a tada bi im moć propala. Kad bi se oslobodili bili bi, kao Sauron, 'prokleti': tj. Smanjili bi se do stanja krajnje nemoći: ispunjen mržnjom ali u nemogućnosti da to naprave ikakav fizički efekt (zar ne bi nestajuće Orkovsko-stanje trebalo biti duh?)
Ali opet- bili Eru takvim bićima priuštio strah? Orlovima itd. možda. Ali ne i Orcima.
Najbolje je promatrati Melkorovu moć počevši od moralnog ili teološkog aspekta. Bilo koje biće koje ga je primilo kao Gospodara (osobito oni koji su ga bogohulno nazivali Ocem ili Tvorcem) uskoro su se iskvarili u svakom djeliću svog bića, dok je fëa povlačio hröu u Morgotizam: mržnju i razaranje. Što se tiče 'besmrtnosti' Vilenjaka: oni su zapravo samo imali iznimno dug život, i sami su se 'fizički' umarali trpeći polagano postupno slabljenje tijela. Sažeto: mislim da je zaključak da 'govoreći' nije nužno znak posjedovanja 'racionalne duše' ili fëe. Orci su bili životinje humanoidnog oblika (kao ruglo Ljudima i Vilenjacima) namjerno iskvarene/preobražene u izgled koji je sličio Ljudima. Njihov 'govor' je nije se držalo 'propisa' koje je postavio Melkor. Čak i njihove pobunjeničke kritizirajuće riječi- znao je zanjih. Melkor ih je naučio govoru a kako su se razmnožavali nasljeđivali su ga; i imali su slobode koliko recimo psi ili konji svojih ljudskih gospodara. Taj je govor više-manje kao u papiga, recimo. U Gospodaru Prstenova spominje se kako je Sauron izmislio jezik za njih.
Slično se može reći za Huana i orlove: Valari su ih naučili jezik, i podigli na viši stupanj- ali još uvijek nisu poznavali strah.
Ali finrod je vjerojatno otišao predaleko tvrdeći da Melkor nije mogao potpuno iskvariti Eruovo djelo, i da bi Eru kad bi bilo potrebno reagirao kako bi opozvao korupciju, ili bi prekinuo život svojih vlastitih bića jer su se iskvarili ili preobratili zlu. Tako ostaje moguće da postoji vilenjačka crta u Orcima. Oni se tada čak mogu pariti sa zvijerima (sterilni!) – a kasnije i ljudima. Njihov bi se životni vijek smanjio. Kad bi umrli otišli bi u Mnados i držali bi se zatvorenima do kraja.

Napisani tekst završava ovdje, ali moj otac je kasnje nadodao i ovu bilješku. Otvara se riječima koje su referenca VI: tekstu, Melkor Morgoth (str, 390).
Vidi 'Melkor'. Tamo se vidi da su volje Orka i balroga itd. kao dio Melkorove 'raspršene' moći. Jedan je duh mržnje. Ali mržnja ne surađuje (osim pod strahom). Zbog toga postoje sve pobune itd. kad se Melkor čini daleko. Orci su zvijeri a Balrozi iskvareni Maiari. Također je Morgoth a ne Sauron izvor volje Orkova. Sauron je samo još jedan veliki sluga. Orci se mogu pobuniti protiv njega bez da izgube soju vlastitu vjernost zlu (Melkoru). Aulë je želio ljubav. Ali nje naumio raspršiti svoju moć. Samo Eru može pružiti ljubav i samostalnost. Ako neki sub kreator koji to pokušava napraviti zapravo potpunu poslušnost, koja se pretvara u robotsko služenje i postaje zlo.
 
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Morfiwen
Posted: Sep 9 2007, 04:11 PM 791043


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Zapocela sam (na svoj totalno laicki nascin rofl.gif ) prevoditi Tolkienova Pisma, pa evo za pocetak ona prva za Edith blush.gif



1. Pismo Edith Bratt

(Tolkien se za Edith Bratt, koju je upoznao u Birminghamu u adolescentskim godinama, poceo zanimati u sijecnju 1913. kada mu je bila 21 godina. Ovo pismo je napisano za vrijeme njegove zadnje godine studija na Oxfordu gdje je studirao engleski jezik i književnost, istovremeno se pripremajuci za vojsku u sveucilišnom centru za obuku. )

Listopad 1914., Exeter College, Oxford

Moja draga Edith,
bio sam poprilicno iznenađen tvojom razglednicom koja je stigla u subotnje jutro i poprilicno žalostan jer sam shvatio da će moje pismo lutati dok te ne nađe. Pišeš mi prekrasna pisma, malena; a ja sam takva svinja prema tebi. Čini se kao da su prošle godine otkad nisam pisao! Imao sam radni (i veoma kišan!) vikend.
Petak je prošao bez ikakvih događaja kao i subota, iako samo imali vježbu cijelo poslijepodne i smocili se više puta, dok su nam se puške potpuno zaprljale i trebala je vjecnost da ih poslije ocistimo.
Vecinu dana sam proveo unutra, čitajuci: morao sam napisati esej, kao što sam ti rekao, ali nisam ga uspio dovršiti jer je iskrsnuo Shakespeare i tada me je (porucnik) Thompson (veoma zdrav i u novoj uniformi) sprijecio da radim subotom kao što sam planirao…otišao sam u crkvu sv. Alojzija na veliku misu- i poprilicno uživao- prošlo je toliko vremena otkad sam bio na misi jer me Fr.F. nije puštao zbog toga što sam prošlog tjedna bio na oratoriju.
Poslijepodne sam se po dužnosti morao odazvati Rektorovu pozivu što je bilo veoma dosadno. Njegova žena je doista zapanjujuca! Izvukao sam se što prije moguce i po kiši pobjegao svojim knjigama. Tada sam posjetio gospodina Sisama i rekao mu da necu moci dovršiti esej do srijede: ostao sam i neko vrijeme razgovarao s njim, tada sam imao zanimljiv razgovor s onim neobicnim Earpom. Pricao sam ti o njemu i upoznao ga (na njegovo veliko zadovoljstvo) s finskom baladom Kalevalom.
U vezi s ostalim poslom, pokušavam pretvoriti jednu od prica- veoma snažnu i tragicnu- u novelu slicnu Morrisovim romanticnim pricama s mnogo poezije između…
Sad moram do fakultetske knjižnice, zaprljati se među prašnjavim knjigama- i tada se motati onuda i posjetiti Bursara….R.

2. Iz pisma Edith Bratt 27. studenog 1914.

Radio sam oko 4 sata. Od 9:20 do 13h (ili nešto slicno) kroz jutro: vježbao sam čitavo poslijepodne, otišao na predavanje od 17 do 18h i poslije vecere (s čovjekom po imenu Earp) sam morao otici na sastanak esejistickog kluba- posljednji dah na neformalan nacin. Rad je bio loš, ali rasprava je bila zanimljiva. Bio je to također i sastanak kompozitora pa sam procitao Earendela koji je pobrao dobre kritike.


3. Iz pisma Edith Bratt 26. studenog 1915.
(Nakon što je diplomirao kao prvi u klasi u engleskom, Tolkien je poslan u lancashiresku pješadiju. Ovo pismo je napisano u kampu Rugeley u Staffordshireu, gdje je trenirao. U međuvremenu je radio na pjesmi ''Kortirion među stablima'' nadahnutu Warwickom, gdje je Edith živjela. Pjesma opisuje ''blijedeci grad na brdašcu'' gdje su ''još uvijek zaostale usamljene družine…čarobne vile i besmrtni vilenjaci'' )

Uobicajeno jutro zapocinje ustajanjem i smrzavanjem, zatim trcanjem da se ugriješ, pa onda opet smrzavanje. Završili smo jednosatno bacanje bombi s glupanima. Rucak i poslijepodnevno smrzavanje. Znojenjem pri punoj brzini smo otprilike udvostrucili sve vruce ljetne dane i sad stojimo u sleđenim grupama na otvorenom dok nam drže govor! Čaj i još jedna gungula-izborio sam se za mjesto kraj peci i zagorio vrh noža- kakvi dani! Ispisao sam olovkom primjerak ''Kortiriona''. Nadam se da mi neceš zamjeriti što ću ga poslati T.C.B.S. –u. Želim im nešto poslati: dugujem im za sva dugacka pisma. Sad ću pažljivo zapoceti s primjerkom u tinti za tebe i poslati ga sutra navecer, jer ne vjerujem da ću dobiti više od jednog natipkanog primjerka (tako je dugacka). Ne, zapravo, poslat ću tebi primjerak olovkom (koji je veoma uredan) i pustiti da T.C.B.S. čeka dok ne nacinim novi.

4. Iz pisma Edith Bratt 2. ožujka 1916.

Ovog turobnog kišovitog poslijepodneva sam opet čitao stare vojnicke bilješke s predavanja: dosadile su mi nakon sata i pol. Dodao sam promjene u svoj nerazumni vilenjacki jezik- zbog njegovog poboljšanja.
Često čeznem za radom na njemu i ne dopustim samom sebi jer, makar ga volim, to se čini tako ludim hobijem!
 
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Morfiwen
Posted: Sep 10 2007, 07:52 AM 791311


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5. G.B. Smithu

( 1911., za vrijeme boravka u školi kralja Edwarda u Birminghamu, Tolkien i trojica prijatelja, Rob Gilson, Geoffrey Smith i Christopher Wiseman su osnovali neformalno i donekle tajno društvo nazvano ''T.C.B.S.'', čiji inicijali znace ''Tea Club and Barrovian Society'' aludirajuci na njihovu privrženost ispijanju čaja u školskoj knjižnici, što je bilo zabranjeno, i u Barrow's Stores u blizini škole. Nakon odlaska iz škole, trojka je ostala u kontaktu i u prosincu 1914. održala ''Vijece'' u Wisemanovoj kuci u Londonu, nakon čega se Tolkien posvetio pisanju poezije- vjerovao je da je to bio rezultat zajednickih ideala i međusobne podrške T.C.B.S.-a. Wiseman je tada bio u mornarici, Gilson i Smith su poslani u bitku kod Somme, a na samom pocetku saveznicke ofenzive, 1. srpnja, je i Tolkien poslan u rat kao pukovnijski časnik za signalizaciju 11. lancashireske pješadije. Baš toga dana Rob Gilson je ubijen u bici, ali vijest o njegovoj smrti je do drugih članova T.C.B.S.-a došla tjednima poslije. Geoffrey Smith je obavijestio Tolkiena i kasnije mu predao pismo Christophera Wisemana.)

12. ožujka 1916., 11. lancanshireska pješadija, B.E.F., Francuska

Moj dragi stari Geoffrey,
Hvala ti na Christopherovom pismu. Od tada sam mnogo razmišljao o nekim stvarima- vecina od njih su nepovezane misli-sve dok nas Bog ponovno ne spoji, makar na trenutak.
Ne slažem se s Chrisom- iako on, naravno, nije mnogo toga rekao. Zdušno se slažem s dijelom koji si ti podcrtao- ali, zacudo, ni najmanje s dijelom kojeg sam ja oznacio i prokomentirao. Sinoc kao i noć prije otišao sam u šumu, sjedio i razmišljao (opet smo u kampu, nakon naše druge rovovske borbe, još uvijek u istom podrucju gdje sam te vidio).
Ne mogu se otresti zakljucka da je pogrešno miješati Robovu zasluženu velicinu s velicinom u koju je sam on sumnjao. Sam on zna da sam posve iskren i da ni na koji nacin nisam iznevjerio ljubav prema njemu (koju uviđam svakog dana sve jace, tek sad kad je napustio četvorku) kad kažem da vjerujem da ako je velicina koju smo nas trojica zasigurno predstavljali (u znacenju višem od svetosti ili same uzvišenosti) stvarno srž T.C.B.S.-a, onda je smrt jednog člana tek izdvajanje onih kojima nije suđeno da postanu velikima- barem izravno. Dao Bog da ovo ne zvuci arogantno- sad se osjecam dovoljno pokornim u istini te neizmjerno slabijim i tužnijim. Velicina na koju sam mislio je bila ona velikog instrumenta u Božjim rukama- pokretac radnik, čak pronalazač velikih djela, pa makar samo zacetnik istih.
Velicina koju je Rob spoznao ni na koji nacin nije manja, ali je druge vrste- jer naša velicina, o kojoj sam govorio i kojoj sam se drhteci nadao, je neprocjenjiva, osim ako joj se ne suceli jednaka cjelina hrabrosti, patnje i žrtve. Drugim rijecima, njegova velicina je sada naša osobna stvar (takve vrste da oznacimo 1. srpnja kao poseban dan u svim godinama koje nam Bog podari), ali uz T.C.B.S. se veže samo po toj jednoj karakteristici koja je možda jedina koju je Rob mogao osjetiti- ''prijateljstvo n-te moci''. Ono na što sam mislio, i što mislim da je Chris mislio, i gotovo sam siguran da si ti mislio, jest da je T.C.B.S.-u dana nekakva iskra (sigurno kao cjelini, a ne pojedincima) koja je trebala zapaliti novo svjetlo, ili , što je ista stvar, ponovno zapaliti staro svjetlo u svijetu; da je sudbina T..C.B.S.-a svjedociti za Boga i Istinu na izravniji nacin od polaganja nekoliko naših života u ovom ratu (što je za sve zlo s naše strane opcenito gledano kao dobro protiv zla).
Zasad je moj dojam da je nešto puklo. Moji osjecaji su jednaki prema obojici vas- još smo bliži i veoma vas trebam- gladan sam i, naravno, usamljen- ali više se ne osjecam članom tog malog, cjelovitog tijela. Iskreno mislim da je T.C.B.S. došao do svog kraja, no uopce nisam siguran je li ovo nestalan osjecaj koji će nestati-možda kao magijom kad se ponovno susretnemo. Ipak se trenutacno osjecam individualnije-sa snažnim osjecajima, više nego idejama-ali ipak nemocno.
Naravno da je T.C.B.S. možda bio sve o čemu smo sanjali- i njegov posao na kraju možda dovrše trojica ili dvojica ili samo jedan preživjeli, a dijelove ostalih mu Bog povjeri inspiracijom, za koju svi znamo da smo ju crpili i crpimo jedan iz drugog. U ovo polažem svoje nade i molim Boga da osoba izabranih da nastave T.C.B.S. ne bude manje od nas trojice…
Ipak zdvajam i tugujem zbog toga (nevezano uz moju osobnu nostalgiju) jer još uvijek ne mogu napustiti nadu i ciljeve (nedovršene i nejasne, znam) koji su po prvi put nastali na Vijecu u Londonu. Nakon tog Vijeca je, u mojem slucaju, uslijedio pronalazak glasa za mnoge prešucene teme i veliko otvaranje svega za mene: uvijek sam to pripisivao inspiraciji koju nam je donosilo čak i samo nekoliko sati zajedno.
Tako stvari stoje, ozbiljno sam sjeo i pokušao ti ugrubo reci ono što mislim. Ovo pismo zvuci veoma hladno i daleko, a ako je nedosljedno, to je zbog toga što je pisano na raznim mjestima u buci dosadne zajednicke menze.
Proslijedi ga Chrisu ako misliš da treba. Ne znam koji će biti naš slijedeci potez niti što nas čeka. Često se čuje glasina o opcoj iscrpljenosti, koliko ju ovaj rat uopce dopušta. Volio bih da znam gdje si. Naravno, pogađat ću.
Mogao bih napisati duže pismo, ali imam puno posla. Zapovjednik pukovnije me traži zbog razgovora, čekaju me i dvije svađe s QM-om i odvratna parada u 6:30- 6:30 poslijepodne na suncanu subotu.
Piši mi kad uhvatiš priliku
Tvoj,
John Ronald.
 
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Morfiwen
Posted: Sep 11 2007, 10:02 AM 791762


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HOME- MORGOTH'S RING-V. MYTHS TRANSFORMED.

In this last section of the book I give a number of late writings of my
father's, various in nature but concerned with, broadly speaking, the
reinterpretation of central elements in the 'mythology' (or legendar-
ium as he called it) to accord with the imperatives of a greatly modified
underlying conception. Some of these papers (there are notable
exceptions) offer exceptional difficulty: fluidity of ideas, ambiguous
and allusive expression, illegible passages. But the greatest problem is
that there is very little firm indication of date external or relative: to
order them into even an approximate sequence of composition seems
impossible (though I believe that virtually all of them come from the
years that saw the writing of Laws and Customs among the Eldar,
the Athrabeth, and late revisions of parts of the Quenta Silmarillion -
the late 1950s, in the aftermath of the publication of The Lord of the
Rings).
i'. In these writings can be read the record of a prolonged interior
debate. Years before this time, the first signs have been seen of
emerging ideas that if pursued would cause massive disturbance in The
Silmarillion: I have shown, as I believe, that when my father first
began to revise and rewrite the existing narratives of the Elder Days,
before The Lord of the Rings was completed, he wrote a version of the
Ainulindale that introduced a radical transformation of the astro-
nomical myth, but that for that time he stayed his hand (pp. 3 - 6, 43).
But now, as will be seen in many of the essays and notes that follow,
he had come to believe that such a vast upheaval was a necessity, that
the cosmos of the old myth was no longer valid; and at the same time
he was impelled to try to construct a more secure 'theoretical' or
'systematic' basis for elements in the legendarium that were not to be
dislodged. With their questionings, their certainties giving way to
doubt, their contradictory resolutions, these writings are to be read
with a sense of intellectual and imaginative stress in the face of such
a dismantling and reconstitution, believed to be an inescapable neces-
sity, but never to be achieved.
The texts, arranged in a very loose 'thematic' sequence, are num-
bered in Roman numerals. Almost all have received very minor editing
(matters of punctuation, insertion of omitted words, and suchlike).
Numbered notes (not present in all cases) follow the individual texts.
I.
I give first a short statement written on two slips found pinned to one
of the typescripts of the Annals of Aman, which would date it to
1958 or later (if my general conclusions about dating are correct,
p. 300).
This descends from the oldest forms of the mythology - when
it was still intended to be no more than another primitive
mythology, though more coherent and less 'savage'. It was
consequently a 'Flat Earth' cosmogony (much easier to manage
anyway): the Matter of Numenor had not been devised.
It is now clear to me that in any case the Mythology must
actually be a 'Mannish' affair. (Men are really only interested in
Men and in Men's ideas and visions.) The High Eldar living and
being tutored by the demiurgic beings must have known, or at
least their writers and loremasters must have known, the 'truth'
(according to their measure of understanding). What we have in
the Silmarillion etc. are traditions (especially personalized, and
centred upon actors, such as Feanor) handed on by Men in
Numenor and later in Middle-earth (Arnor and Gondor); but
already far back - from the first association of the Dunedain
and Elf-friends with the Eldar in Beleriand - blended and
confused with their own Mannish myths and cosmic ideas.
At that point (in reconsideration of the early cosmogonic
parts) I was inclined to adhere to the Flat Earth and the
astronomically absurd business of the making of the Sun and
Moon. But you can make up stories of that kind when you live
among people who have the same general background of
imagination, when the Sun 'really' rises in the East and goes
down in the West, etc. When however (no matter how little
most people know or think about astronomy) it is the general
belief that we live upon a 'spherical' island in 'Space' you cannot
do this any more.
One loses, of course, the dramatic impact of such things as
the first 'incarnates' waking in a starlit world - or the coming
of the High Elves to Middle-earth and unfurling their banners at
the first rising of the Moon.
I have given this first, because - though jotted down at great speed-
it is an express statement of my father's views at this time, in three,
major respects. The astronomical myths of the Elder Days cannot be
regarded as a record of the traditional beliefs of the Eldar in any pure
form, because the High-elves of Aman cannot have been thus
ignorant; and the cosmological elements in The Silmarillion are
essentially a record of mythological ideas, complex in origin, prevailing
among Men.(1) In this note, however, my father appears to have accepted
that these ideas do not in themselves necessarily lead to great upheaval
in the essential 'world-structure' of The Silmarillion, but on the
contrary provide a basis for its retention ('At that point ... I was
inclined to adhere to the Flat Earth'). The conclusion of this brief
statement appears then to be a further and unconnected step: that
the cosmological myth of The Silmarillion was a 'creative error' on the
part of its maker, since it could have no imaginative truth for people
who know very well that such an 'astronomy' is delusory.
As he stated it, this may seem to be an argument of the most
doubtful nature, raising indeed the question, why is the myth of the
Two Trees (which so far as record goes he never showed any intention
to abandon) more acceptable than that of the creation of the Sun and
the Moon from the last fruit and flower of the Trees as they died? Or
indeed, if this is true, how can it be acceptable that the Evening Star is
the Silmaril cut by Beren from Morgoth's crown?
It is at any rate clear, for he stated it unambiguously enough, that he
had come to believe that the art of the 'Sub-creator' cannot, or should not attempt to, extend to the 'mythical' revelation of a conception of
the shape of the Earth and the origin of the lights of heaven that runs
counter to the known physical truths of his own days: 'You cannot do
this any more'. And this opinion is rendered more complex and
difficult of discussion by the rise in importance of the Eldarin
'loremasters' of Aman, whose intellectual attainments and knowledge
must preclude any idea that a 'false' astronomy could have prevailed
among them. It seems to me that he was devising - from within it - a
fearful weapon against his own creation.
In this brief text he wrote scornfully of 'the astronomically absurd
business of the making of the Sun and Moon'. I think it possible that it
was the actual nature of this myth that led him finally to abandon it. It
is in conception beautiful, and not absurd; but it is exceedingly
'primitive'. Of the original 'Tale of the Sun and Moon' in The Book of
Lost Tales I wrote (1.201):
As a result of this fullness and intensity of description, the origin
of the Sun and Moon in the last fruit and last flower of the Trees has
less of mystery than in the succinct and beautiful language of The
Silmarillion; but also much is said here to emphasize the great size
of the 'Fruit of Noon', and the increase in the heat and brilliance of
the Sunship after its launching, so that the reflection rises less readily
that if the Sun that brilliantly illumines the whole Earth was but one
fruit of Laurelin then Valinor must have been painfully bright and
hot in the days of the Trees. In the early story the last outpourings of
life from the dying Trees are utterly strange and 'enormous', those
of Laurelin portentous, even ominous; the Sun is astoundingly
bright and hot even to the Valar, who are awestruck and disquieted
by what has been done (the Gods knew 'that they had done a greater
thing than they at first knew'); and the anger and distress of certain
of the Valar at the burning light of the Sun enforces the feeling that
in the last fruit of Laurelin a terrible and unforeseen power has been
released.
As the Quenta Silmarillion evolved and changed the myth had been
diminished in the scale and energy of its presentation; indeed in the
final form of the chapter, and in the Annals of Aman, the description
of the actual origin of the Sun and Moon is reduced to a few lines.
Yet even as hope failed and her song faltered, behold! Telperion
bore at last upon a leafless bough one great flower of silver, and
Laurelin a single fruit of gold.
These Yavanna took, and then the Trees died, and their lifeless
stems stand yet in Valinor, a memorial of vanished joy. But the
flower and fruit Yavanna gave to Aule, and Manwe hallowed them;
and Aule and his folk made vessels to hold them and preserve their
radiance, as is said in the Narsilion, the Song of the Sun and Moon.
These vessels the gods gave to Varda, that they might become lamps
of heaven, outshining the ancient stars...
The grave and tranquil words cannot entirely suppress a sense that
there emerges here an outcropping, as it were, uneroded, from an
older level, more fantastic, more bizarre. As indeed it does: such was
the nature of the work, evolved over so many years. But it did not stand
in the work as an isolated myth, a now gratuitous element that could
be excised; for bound up with it was the myth of the Two Trees ('the
Elder Sun and Moon'), giving light through long ages to the land of
Valinor, while Middle-earth lay in darkness, illumined only by the
stars in the firmament of Arda. In that darkness the Elves awoke, the
People of the Stars; and after the death of the Trees the ancient Light
was preserved only in the Silmarils. In 1951 my father had written
(Letters no.131, p. 148):
There was the Light of Valinor made visible in the Two Trees of
Silver and Gold. These were slain by the Enemy out of malice, and
Valinor was darkened, though from them, ere they died utterly,
were derived the lights of Sun and Moon. (A marked difference here
between these legends and most others is that the Sun is not a divine
symbol, but a second-best thing, and the 'light of the Sun' (the world
under the sun) become terms for a fallen world, and a dislocated
imperfect vision.)
But: 'You cannot do this any more.' In the following pages will be seen
how, driven by this conviction, he attempted to undo what he had
done, but to retain what he might. It is remarkable that he never at this
time seems to have felt that what he said in this present note provided
a resolution of the problem that he believed to exist:
What we have in the Silmarillion etc. are traditions... handed on by
Men in Numenor and later in Middle-earth (Arnor and Gondor);
but already far back - from the first association of the Dunedain
and Elf-friends with the Eldar in Beleriand - blended and confused
with their own Mannish myths and cosmic ideas.
It is tempting to suppose that when my father wrote that 'in
reconsideration of the early cosmogonic parts' he was 'inclined to
adhere to the Flat Earth and the astronomically absurd business of the
making of the Sun and Moon', he was referring to Ainulindale' C and
the Annals of Aman. If this were so, it might account for the
developments in Ainulindale' C discussed on pp. 27 - 9, where Arda
becomes a small world within the vastness of Ea - but retains the 'Flat
Earth' characteristics of Ilu from the Ambarkanta and before.
In connection with my father's statement that the legends of The
Silmarillion were traditions handed on by Men in Numenor and later
in the Numenorean kingdoms in Middle-earth, this is a convenient
place to give an entirely isolated note carefully typed (but not on his
later typewriter) on a small slip and headed 'Memorandum'.
The three Great Tales must be Numenorean, and derived
from matter preserved in Gondor. They were part of the
Atanatarion (or the Legendarium of the Fathers of Men).
?Sindarin Nern in Edenedair (or In Adanath).
They are (1) Narn Beren ion Barahir also called Narn
e-Dinuviel (Tale of the Nightingale)
(2) Narn e-mbar Hador containing (a) Narn
i Chin Hurin (or Narn e-'Rach Morgoth Tale of the Curse of
Morgoth); and (b ) Narn en El (or Narn e-Dant Gondolin ar
Orthad en El)
Should not these be given as Appendices to the Silmarillion?
In the question with which this ends my father was presumably
distinguishing between long and short forms of the tales. - Two
further notes on this slip, typed at the same time as the above, refer to
'the Tale of Turin' and suggest that he was working on it at that time.(2)
I do not know of any precise evidence to date the great development of
the 'Turin Saga', but it certainly belongs to an earlier period than the
writings given in the latter part of this book.
The idea that the legends of the Elder Days derived from Numenor-
ean tradition appears also in the abandoned typescript (AAm') of the
Annals of Aman that my father made himself (p. 64).(3) In this text the
preamble states:
Here begin the 'Annals of Aman'. Rumil made them in the Elder
Days, and they were held in memory by the Exiles. Those parts
which we learned and remembered were thus set down in Numenor
before the Shadow fell upon it.

HOME- Morgothov Prsten- V. Preobrazba mitova

U ovom, zadnjem, dijelu knjige donosim velik broj ocevih posljednjih rukopisa koji su tematski razliciti, ali se uglavnom bave reinterpretacijom središnjih elemenata u ''mitologiji'' (ili ''legendama'', kako ih je on zvao) kako bi se slagali s postavkama uvelike promijenjene sljedece koncepcije. Neki od ovih tekstova (postoje i bitne iznimke) su jako komplicirani, puni površnih ideja, dvosmislenog i indirektnog izricaja, necitljivih odlomaka. No najveci problem je u tome što postoji jako malo čvrstih podataka o vremenu nastanka ili smislenom redu: čini se nemogucim makar približno ih složiti u zbirku (iako ja vjerujem da su gotovo svi nastali u isto vrijeme kad je pisao ''Zakone i obicaje u Eldara'', Athrabeth te kasnije verzije dijelova Quenta Silmarillion-u kasnim pedesetima, nakon efekta koji je izazvao Gospodar Prstenova).
U ovom tekstu može se pratiti poduža unutarnja debata. Prije mnogo godina moglo se zamijetiti rađanje ideja koje su, da ih se dovelo do kraja, mogle izazvati veliku zbrku u Silmarillionu: vjerujem da sam naglasio kako je moj otac najprije poceo revidirati i ponovno pisati price iz starijih vremena, čak prije nego li je završio Gospodara Prstenova; napisao je verziju Ainulindale koja je radikalno promijenila ogroman mit, ali je oklijevao dovršiti preinaku.
Iz slijedecih eseja i bilješki proizlazi da je bio uvjeren kako je takva golema promjena potrebna, da ukupnost starog mita više ne vrijedi; istovremeno je bio primoran pokušati konstruirati sigurniju teoretsku, odnosno sistematicniju bazu za elemente u legendama koje nije htio ukloniti. S obzirom na njihova preispitivanja, njihove datosti koje otvaraju put sumnji i njihova kontradiktorna rješenja, ovi tekstovi se trebaju čitati pažljivo, imajuci na umu intelektualni i kreativni stres kao posljedicu suocavanja s takvim uklanjanjem i rekonstrukcijom za koju je mislio da je nužna, ali nikad dostignuta.
Tekstovi, složeni prema veoma labavoj tematskoj povezanosti, su numerirani rimskim brojkama. Gotovo svi su pretrpjeli veoma sitne preinake (interpunkcija, umetanje preskocenih rijeci i slicno). Numerirane bilješke (koje nisu navedene u svakom primjeru) navedene su ispod pojedinog teksta.

I.
Najprije donosim kratku izjavu napisanu na dva komada papira, spojenima u jedan, uz natipkani tekst Amanskih Anala koje bih datirao u 1958. ili kasnije (ako su moji zakljucci o datumima opcenito tocni).

Ovo proizlazi iz najstarijih oblika mitologije-kada je trebala biti ništa bolja od kakve druge primitivne mitologije, iako povezanija i manje ''divlja''. Posljedicno je postala okvir teorije geneze ravne Zemlje (s kojom se ionako lakše nositi): prica o Numenoru tada još nije nastala. Sad mi je jasno da mitologija u svakom slucaju mora biti ''ljudska'' stvar (ustvari, ljudi i jesu zainteresirani iskljucivo za ljude, te ljudske ideje i vizije). Uzvišeni Eldari koji su živjeli i poducavali niža bica su morali znati istinu, ili su je barem morali znati njihovi pisci i ucenjaci (s obzirom na njihovo poimanje razumijevanja). U Silmarillionu nailazimo na tradicije (posebno poosobljene i vezane uz likove, npr. poput Feanora) koje su nastavili Numenorejci i kasnije ljudi Međuzemlja (Arnor i Gondor); ali već puno prije, od prvog povezivanja Dunedaina i prijatelja vilenjaka s Eldarima u Beleriandu- te tradicije su se uklopile i spojile s njihovim vlastitim, ljudskim mitovima i idejama poretka.
U tom trenutku (ponovno proucavajuci ranije napisane dijelove geneze) sam bio primoran ostati pri okvirnoj teoriji ravne Zemlje i astronomski apsurdnoj teoriji stvaranja Sunca i Mjeseca. Ipak, možete smišljati takve price kad živite među ljudima koji imaju zajednicke opce temelje mašte, kad Sunce zaista izlazi na istoku i zalazi na zapadu itd. Ali ako je opce uvjerenje da živimo na sferoidnom otoku u Svemiru, onda više ne možete ovako (bez obzira na to što ljudi malo znaju i razmišljaju o astronomiji).
Naravno, zaboravite na takav dramatican efekt s prvim otjelovljenjem pod zvjezdanim nebom- ili dolaskom uzvišenih vilenjaka u Međuzemlje čije zastave zavijore s prvim izlaskom Mjeseca.
Najprije sam dao ovaj dio, iako nacrckan na brzinu, jer izražava ocevo onodobno stajalište o trima važnim stvarima. Astronomijski mitovi iz starih dana se ne mogu smatrati izvorom tradicionalnih vjerovanja Eldara u čistom obliku, jer uzvišeni amanski vilenjaci nisu mogli biti takvi neznalice; i kozmološki elementi u Silmarillionu su ponajprije izvor mitoloških ideja, kompliciranih u izvornom obliku, koje prevladavaju među ljudima. Ipak se čini da je u ovom tekstu moj otac smatrao da ove ideje same po sebi ne vode nužno do velikih poremecaja u ''svjetskom poretku'' prikazanom u Silmarillionu, već da stvaraju bazu za njegovo zadržavanje ( '' U tom trenutku…sam bio primoran ostati pri okvirnoj teoriji ravne Zemlje..''). Čini se da je zakljucak ove kratke izjave daljnja nepovezana teorija: da je kozmološki mit u Silmarillionu bio ''kreativna greška'' autora, s obzirom na to da nije mogla predstavljati maštovitu istinu za ljude koji su dobro znali da je takva ''astronomija'' iluzorna.
Kao što je rekao, ovo je možda veoma labav argument, koji postavlja pitanje zašto je mit o Dva Stabla ( kojeg, kako pokazuju svi zapisi, nikada nije namjeravao napustiti) prihvatljiviji od mita o stvaranju Sunca i Mjeseca iz njihovih plodova nakon što su uvenula? I zaista, ako je ovo istinito, kako može biti prihvatljivo da je zvijezda Danica zapravo Silmaril kojeg je Beren ukrao iz Morgothove krune?
U svakom slucaju je jasno, jer je sam on to nedvojbeno naglasio, da je vjerovao kako umjetnost pod-stvaratelja ne može i ne bi trebala pokušati proširiti mitsko stvaranje koncepcije o obliku Zemlje i porijeklu nebeskih tijela koja je protivna, u njegovo vrijeme poznatim, zakonima fizike: ''To više ne možeš raditi''. Ovo mišljenje je postalo još kompliciranija i teža tema za raspravu zbog stavljanja naglaska na eldarske ucenjake u Amanu čija intelektualna dostignuca i znanje moraju sprijeciti bilo kakvu pomisao da je među njima mogla prevladati ta ''pogrešna'' astronomija. Čini mi se da je otac, iz nutrine svega toga, razvijao strašno oružje usmjereno protiv vlastite kreacije.
U ovom kratkom tekstu je prijekorno pisao o ''astronomski apsurdnoj teoriji stvaranja Sunca i Mjeseca''. Moguce je da ga je do konacnog napuštanja ovog mita dovela njegova prava narav. Zamisao je prekrasna, i nije apsurdna, ali je pretjerano primitivna. U knjizi Izgubljene Pripovijest I. pisao sam o originalnoj prici o stvaranju Sunca i Mjeseca:
Kao rezultat punine i intenziteta opisa, porijeklo Sunca i Mjeseca iz zadnjeg ploda i cvijeta Stabala je manje misteriozno nego u uvodu, pisano prekrasnim jezikom Silmarilliona; svejedno, mnogo recenog naglašava velicinu ''podnevnog voca'', te toplinu i svjetlost Sunceve Kocije nakon njezinog stvaranja, pa se polagano stvara dojam da je Valinor morao biti poprilicno okupan svjetlošću u vrijeme Stabala, s obzirom na to da je Sunce nastalo od samo jednog ploda Laurelina, a ipak osvjetljavalo čitavu Zemlju. U ranoj verziji price, posljednji izdanci života iz Stabala su posve čudnovati i golemi, Laurelinovi čak sudbonosni i turobni; Sunce je zacuđujuce svijetlo i vruce čak i za Valare, koji su uznemireni i iznenađeni tim događajima ( bogovi su shvatili ''da su ucinili vecu stvar nego što su u pocetku mislili''); nemir i srdžba nekih od Valara na suncevu vrelu svjetlost osnažuje slutnju da je u posljednjem plodu Laurelina oslobođena strašna i nepredvidiva moc
Kako se Quenta Silmarillion razvijala i mijenjala, mit je oslabio i prica je izgubila na energicnosti; zaista, u finalnom obliku poglavlja i u Amanskim Analima je opis porijekla Sunca i Mjeseca reduciran na par recenica.
I kada je već izgubila nadu i njena pjesma oslabila, gle! Telperion je procvao zadnjim velikim srebrnim cvijetom, a Laurelin dao posljednji zlatni plod.
Preuzela ih je Yavanna, i tada su Stabla uvenula, dok njihova beživotna debla još uvijek stoje u Valinoru kao spomenik izgubljene srece. Cvijet i plod je Yavanna dala Auleu, a Manwe ih je blagoslovio; te je Aule sa svojim narodom nacinio brodove koji će ih nositi čuvajuci njihovu svjetlost, kako je receno u Narsilionu, pjesmi Sunca i Mjeseca. Ove brodove su bogovi dali Vardi kako bi postali nebeske lampe, sjajnije od starih zvijezda…
Ozbiljne i mirne rijeci ne mogu u potpunosti suzbiti osjecaj da ovdje imamo samo neokrnjeni dio starije, čudnovatije i strašnije, verzije. Doista je tako: takva je narav rada razvijanog kroz mnogo godina. Ali prica nije iskakala iz cjeline kao izolirani mit, suvišan element koji se mogao izbaciti, jer je uz nju bio vezan mit o Dva Stabla(''starijeg Sunca i Mjeseca'') koji su godinama osvjetljavali Valinor dok je Međuzemlje bilo u tami, osvijetljeno tek svjetlošću zvijezda. U tami su se probudili vilenjaci, zvjezdani narod; a nakon uništenja Stabala, stara svjetlost je ocuvana samo u Silmarilima. 1951. moj otac je zapisao:

Postojala je svjetlost u Valinoru utjelovljena u dvama Stablima, Srebrnom i Zlatnom. Stabla je, u svojoj zlobi, uništio neprijatelj i Valinor je zamracen, no makar su potpuno uvenula, iz njih je nacinjena svjetlost Sunca i Mjeseca. (Vidljiva razlika između ovih legendi i vecine drugih je u tome što ovdje Sunce nije božanski simbol već druga najbolja stvar i termin ''svjetlost Sunca'', odnosno svijet pod Suncem, pocinje znaciti okaljani svijet, oštecenu i nesavršenu viziju.)

Ali: ''To više ne možeš raditi.'' Na slijedecim stranicama se može vidjeti kako je, vođen ovom mišlju, pokušao poništiti već napisano, istovremeno zadržavajuci ono što je zadržati moguce. Zanimljivo je da, u to vrijeme, nije naslutio da rješenje problema za kojeg je vjerovao da postoji leži u prethodnoj bilješci:

U Silmarillionu nailazimo na tradicije…koje su nastavili Numenorejci i kasnije ljudi Međuzemlja (Arnor i Gondor); ali već puno prije, od prvog povezivanja Dunedaina i prijatelja vilenjaka s Eldarima u Beleriandu- te tradicije su se uklopile i spojile s njihovim vlastitim, ljudskim mitovima i idejama poretka.

Bilo bi primamljivo zakljuciti da je moj otac mislio na Ainulindale i Amanske Anale kada je pisao o ''potrebi slaganja s teorijom ravne Zemlje i astronomski apsurdnoj teoriji stvaranja Sunca i Mjeseca'' u ''rekonstrukciji ranih verzija stvaranja''. Kad bi bilo tako, teorija bi mogla vrijediti za Ainulindale gdje Arda postaje malen svijet u prostranoj Ea-i zadržavajuci karakteristike ravne Zemlje Illu-a iz Ambarakante i prijašnjih tekstova.
S obzirom na ocevu izjavu da su legende iz Silmarilliona tradicija koju su ljudi Numenora prenijeli na numenorejska kraljevstva Međuzemlja, ovo je dobro mjesto za jednu pažljivo otipkanu (ali ne na njegovom kasnijem pisacem stroju) izoliranu bilješku naslovljenu ''Memorandum'':

Tri Velike Price moraju biti numenorejske i izvirati iz temeljnih postavki ocuvanih u Gondoru. Bile su dijelovi Atanatariona (ili Legendi o ljudskim sudbinama). Sindarinski ''Nern in Edenedair'' (ili In Adanath).
To su:
1. Narn Beren ion Barahir znana i kao Narn e-Dinuviel (Prica o slavuju)
2. Narn e-mbar Hador koja sadrži a) Narn i Chin Hurin (ili narn e-'Rach Morgoth, Prica o Morgothovoj kletvi) i b ) Narn en El (ili Narn e-Dant Gondolin ili Orthad en El)
Zar ovo ne bi trebalo biti objavljeno kao dodatak Silmarillionu?

Po pitanju ovakvih svršetaka otac je vjerojatno razlikovao dugacke i kratke verzije prica. Dvije slijedece bilješke na istom papiru, tipkane na isti nacin kao i prethodna, se odnose na ''Pricu o Turinu'' što nas upucuje na zakljucak da je u to vrijeme radio na njoj. Nemam pouzdanih izvora prema kojima bih mogao datirati stvaranje ''Sage o Turinu'', ali ono zasigurno spada u ranije razdoblje koje prethodi vremenu u kojem su napisane bilješke u ostatku knjige.
Zamisao da su legende iz starijih dana proizašle iz numenoreanske tradicije također se javlja u napuštenim verzijama teksta Amanskih Anala koje je napisao moj otac. U uvodu ovog teksta stoji:

Ovdje zapocinju ''Amanski Anali''. Nacinio ih je Rumil u starijim danima i ostali su u pamcenju izgnanika. Ti dijelovi price koje smo naucili i kojih se sjecamo nastali su u Numenoru prije nego li je na njega pala Sjena.

Edited by Morfiwen - Sep 12 2007, 09:51 AM
 
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Morfiwen
Posted: Sep 12 2007, 08:56 AM 792078


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HOME-MORGOTH'S RING-V. MYTHS TRANSFORMED

II.
This is a text of a most problematic nature, a manuscript in ink that
falls into two parts which are plainly very closely associated: a
discussion, with proposals for the 'regeneration' of the mythology;
and an abandoned narrative. Neither has title or heading.
The Making of the Sun and Moon must occur long before the
coming of the Elves; and cannot be made to be after the death of
the Two Trees - if that occurred in any connexion with the
sojourn of the Noldor in Valinor. The time allowed is too short.
Neither could there be woods and flowers &c. on earth, if there
had been no light since the overthrow of the Lamps!(1)
But how can, nonetheless, the Eldar be called the 'Star-folk'?
Since the Eldar are supposed to be wiser and have truer
knowledge of the history and nature of the Earth than Men (or
than Wild Elves), their legends should have a closer relation to
the knowledge now possessed of at least the form of the Solar
System (= Kingdom of Arda);(2) though it need not, of course,
follow any 'scientific' theory of its making or development.
It therefore seems clear that the cosmogonic mythology
should represent Arda as it is, more or less: an island in the void
'amidst the innumerable stars'. The Sun should be coeval with
Earth, though its relative size need not be considered, while
the apparent revolution of the Sun about the Earth will be
accepted.*
The Stars, therefore, in general will be other and remoter
parts of the Great Tale of Ea, which do not concern the Valar of
Arda. Though, even if not explicitly, it will be an underlying
assumption that the Kingdom of Arda is of central importance,
selected amid all the immeasurable vast of Ea as the scene for
the main drama of the conflict of Melkor with Iluvatar, and the
Children of Eru. Melkor is the supreme spirit of Pride and
Revolt, not just the chief Vala of the Earth, who has turned to
evil.(3)
(* [marginal note] It is or would be in any case a 'fact of life' for any
intelligence that chose the Earth for a place of life and labour. [There is
no indication where this is to go, but nowhere else on the page seems
suitable.])
Varda, therefore, as one of the great Valar of Arda, cannot be
said to have 'kindled' the stars, as an original subcreative act -
not at least the stars in general.(4)
The Story, it seems, should follow such a line as this. The
entry of the Valar into Ea at the beginning of Time. The
choosing of the Kingdom of Arda as their chief abiding place
(? by the highest and noblest of the Ainur,(5) to whom Iluvatar
had intended to commit the care of the Eruhini). Manwe and his
companions elude Melkor and begin the ordering of Arda, but
Melkor seeks for them and at last finds Arda,(6) and contests the
kingship with Manwe.
This period will, roughly, correspond to supposed primeval
epochs before Earth became habitable. A time of fire and
cataclysm. Melkor disarrayed the Sun so that at periods it was
too hot, and at others too cold. Whether this was due to the
state of the Sun, or alterations in the orbit of Earth, need not be
made precise: both are possible.
But after a battle Melkor is driven out from Earth itself. (The
First Battle?) He finds he can only come there in great secrecy.
At this time he begins first to turn most to cold and darkness.
His first desire (and weapon) had been fire and heat. It was in
the wielding of flame that Tulkas (? originally Vala of the Sun)
defeated him in the First Battle. Melkor therefore comes mostly
at night and especially to the North in winter. (It was after the
First Battle that Varda set certain stars as ominous signs for the
dwellers in Arda to see.)
The Valar to counteract this make the Moon. Out of
earth-stuff or Sun? This is to be a subsidiary light to mitigate
night * (as Melkor had made it), and also a 'vessel of watch and
ward' to circle the world.(7) But Melkor gathered in the Void
spirits of cold &c. and suddenly assailed it, driving out the Vala
Tilion.(8) The Moon was thereafter long while steerless and
vagrant and called Rana (neuter).(9)
[If Tulkas came from the Sun, then Tulkas was the form this
Vala adopted on Earth, being in origin Auron (masculine). But
the Sun is feminine; and it is better that the Vala should be Aren,
a maiden whom Melkor endeavoured to make his spouse (or
ravished);(10) she went up in a flame of wrath and anguish and
(* [marginal note] But not to drive it away. It was necessary to have
an alternation, 'because in Ea according to the Tale nothing can
endure endlessly without weariness and corruption.')
her spirit was released from Ea, but Melkor was blackened and
burned, and his form was thereafter dark, and he took to dark-
ness. (The Sun itself was Anar neuter or Ur, cf. Rana, Ithil.)]
The Sun remained a Lonely Fire, polluted by Melkor, but
after the death of the Two Trees Tilion returned to the Moon,
which remained therefore an enemy of Melkor and his servants
and creatures of night - and so beloved of Elves later &c.
After the capture of the Moon Melkor begins to be more bold
again. He establishes permanent seats in the North deep under-
ground. From thence proceeds the secret corruption which per-
verts the labours of the Valar (especially of Aule and Yavanna).
The Valar grow weary. At length discovering Melkor and
where he dwells they seek to drive him out again, but Utumno
proves too strong.
Varda has preserved some of the Primeval Light (her original
chief concern in the Great Tale). The Two Trees are made. The
Valar make their resting place and dwellings in Valinor in the
West.
Now one of the objects of the Trees (as later of the Jewels)
was the healing of the hurts of Melkor, but this could easily
have a selfish aspect: the staying of history - not going on with
the Tale. This effect it had on the Valar. They became more and
more enamoured of Valinor, and went there more often and
stayed there longer. Middle-earth was left too little tended,
and too little protected against Melkor.
Towards the end of the Days of Bliss, the Valar find the tables
turned. They are driven out of Middle-earth by Melkor and his
evil spirits and monsters; and can only themselves come there
secretly and briefly (Orome and Yavanna mainly).
This period must be brief. Both sides know that the coming of
the Children of God is imminent. Melkor desires to dominate
them at once with fear and darkness and enslave them. He
darkens the world [added in margin: for 7 years?] cutting off all
vision of the sky so far as he can, and though far south (it is
said) this was not effective. From the far North (where [they
are] dense) to the middle (Endor)(11) great clouds brood. Moon
and stars are invisible. Day is only a dim twilight at full. Only
light [is] in Valinor.
Varda arises in her might and Manwe of the Winds and strive
with the Cloud of Unseeing. But as fast as it is rent Melkor
closes the veil again - at least over Middle-earth. Then came the
Great Wind of Manwe, and the veil was rent. The stars shine
out clear even in the North (Valakirka) and after the long dark
seem terribly bright.
It is in the dark just before that the Elves awake. The first
thing they see in the dark is the stars. But Melkor brings up
glooms out of the East, and the stars fade away west. Hence
they think from the beginning of light and beauty in the West.
The Coming of Orome.
The Third Battle and the captivity of Melkor. The Eldar go to
Valinor. The clouds slowly disperse after the capture of Melkor
though Utumno still belches. It is darkest eastward, furthest
from the breath of Manwe.
The March of the Eldar is through great Rains?
Men awake in an Isle amid the floods and therefore welcome
the Sun which seems to come out of the East. Only when the
world is drier do they leave the Isle and spread abroad.
It is only Men that met Elves and heard the rumours of the
West that go that way. For the Elves said: 'If you delight in the
Sun, you will walk in the path it goes.'
The coming of Men will therefore be much further back.(12)
This will be better; for a bare 400 years is quite inadequate to
produce the variety, and the advancement (e.g. of the Edain) at
the time of Felagund.(13)
Men must awake while Melkor is still in Arda? - because of
their Fall.(14) Therefore in some period during the Great March.
This text ends here. There follows now the associated narrative,
identical in appearance to the foregoing discussion (both elements are
written in the same rather unusual script).

HOME- Morgothov Prsten- V. Preobrazba mitova

II.

Narav slijedeceg teksta veoma je problematicna, rukopis tintom podijeljen je u dva dijela koja su ocigledno veoma blisko povezana: rasprava s prijedlozima obnove mitologije i
odbacena prica. Ni jedan tekst nema naslova ni uvoda.

Stvaranje Sunca i Mjeseca moralo se dogoditi mnogo prije dolaska vilenjaka kojeg se ne može staviti u vrijeme nakon uvenuca Dvaju Stabala- ako se to dogodilo u bilo kojoj vezi s boravkom Noldora u Valinoru. Preostalo vrijeme je prekratko. Također, ako nije bilo svjetlosti još od uništenja Lampi, na Zemlji ne bi moglo biti ni cvijeca, stabala itd. !
U skladu s tim, kako se Eldare može nazivati zvjezdanim narodom? S obzirom na to da se Eldare smatra mudrijima i da posjeduju tocnija znanja o naravi i povijesti Zemlje od ljudi (ili šumskih vilenjaka), njihove legende bi trebale biti bliže sada postojecim spoznajama, makar onima o obliku Sunceva Sustava (=Kraljevstva Arde); naravno, one ne moraju podupirati bilo koju znanstvenu teoriju o njegovu nastanku i razvoju.
Stoga je jasno da mitologija o nastanku svemira mora, manje-više, predstavljati Ardu kakva jest: otok u ništavilu među ''nebrojenim zvijezdama''. Sunce bi trebalo biti približne starosti kao i Zemlja, iako njegovu relativnu velicinu ne treba uzeti u obzir, prihvatit će se uocena revolucija Sunca oko Zemlje.* (*bilješka: ''Ovo jest i u svakom slucaju bi bila 'životna činjenica' za svaku inteligentnu vrstu koja bi Zemlju odabrala kao mjesto za život i rad.'' Nema naznake o tome kamo bi ovaj tekst trebao ici, ali ni jedno drugo mjesto na ovoj stranici se ne čini prikladnim)
Dakle, zvijezde bi opcenito bile drukciji i udaljeniji dijelovi Velike Price o Ea-i koje nisu povezane s Valarima Arde. Makar, treba se pretpostaviti, iako ne eksplicitno, da je Kraljevstvo Arde od središnje važnosti, izabrano među nebrojenim prostranstvima Ea-e kao pozornica sukobu Melkora s Iluvatarom i Eruovom djecom. Melkor je vrhovni duh Ponosa i Pobune, ne samo glavni Vala Zemlje, koji je postao zao.
Stoga se za Vardu, kao jednu od viših Vala Arde, ne može reci da je ''upalila'' zvijezde kao čin pod-kreacije-barem ne zvijezde opcenito.
Čini se da prica treba slijediti ovakav tok. Ulazak Valara u Ea-u na pocetku vremena. Izbor Kraljevstva Arde kao centralnog mjesta obitavanja(?od strane najviših i najcasnijih od Ainura kojima je Iluvatar naumio povjeriti brigu o Eruhinima). Manwe i njegovi suradnici izbjegavajuci Melkora zapocnu uređivanje Arde, ali Melkor nakon potrage napokon pronađe Ardu i konkurira Manweu za položaj njezinog kralja.
Ugrubo, ovaj period bi odgovarao pretpostavljenim najranijim epohama prije nego što je Zemlja postala naseljiva. Vrijeme vatre i kataklizmi. Melkor je poremetio Sunce tako da je u nekim periodima bilo prevruce, a u nekima previše hladno. Ne mora se precizno odrediti je li ovo bio rezultat agregatnog stanja Sunca ili promjena u Zemljinoj orbiti jer je oboje moguce.
Ali, nakon bitke je Melkor protjeran sa same Zemlje. (Prve Bitke?) Spoznaje da se može vratiti samo u potpunoj tajnosti. U ovo vrijeme on po prvi put pocinje prihvacati pretežno hladnocu i tamu. Njegova prva strast (i prvo oružje) su bile vatra i toplina. U Prvoj Bitci ga je Tukas (? Prvotno Vala Sunca) pobijedio u rukovanju plamenom. Stoga Melkor uglavnom dolazi nocu i pogotovo zimi na Sjever. (Nakon Prve Bitke je Varda upalila određene zvijezde kao turobne znakove za žitelje Arde).
Kao odgovor na ovo, Valari prave Mjesec. Iz zemljine materije ili pak sunceve? Ovo bi trebalo biti zamjensko svjetlo stvoreno da rasvijetli noć* (koju je nacinio Melkor), također ''brod stražar i šticenik'' koji kruži oko svijeta. Ali Melkor je u Ništavilu okupio duhove hladnoce te ga iznenadno napao, istjeravši Valu Tiliona. Mjesec je dugo nakon toga bio dezorijentiran i promjenjiv, nazvan Rana (bez određenog spola). (*bilješka: Ali ne da je potpuno otjera. Bilo je potrebno imati promjenu, ''jer u Ea-i, u skladu s Pricom, ništa ne traje vjecno bez da oslabi ili se iskvari.'' )
(Ako je Tulkas došao sa Sunca, onda je Tulkas bio oblik kojeg je ovaj Vala uzeo na Zemlji, koji je u pocetku bio Auron(muško). Ali Sunce je ženskog roda; i bolje je da ta Vala bude Aren, djeva koju je Melkor naumio uzeti za ženu (ili pak prisilio); pojavila se u plamenu gnjeva i negodovanja te je njen duh otpušten od Ea-e, ali je Melkor ostao zadimljen i opecen, te je od tada njegov oblik bio taman, a on se priklonio tami.)
( Samo Sunce je bilo Anar, bez određenog spola ili Ur, usporedi s: Rana, Ithil)
Sunce je ostalo usamljeni plamen kojeg je okaljao Melkor, ali Tilion se poslije uvenuca Dvaju Stabala vratio na Mjesec koji je stoga ostao neprijateljem Melkora, njegovih sluga i bica tame- zbog toga su ga kasnije vilenjaci obožavali.
Nakon što je zatocio Mjesec, Melkor opet postaje sve odvažnijim. Ustanovljuje stalna sjedišta na Sjeveru, duboko pod zemljom. Od tada se odvija tajno kvarenje koje izopacuje radove Valara (pogotovo Aulea i Yavanne).
Valari se umaraju. Najposlije otkrivajuci Melkora i njegovo stanište, pokušavaju ga opet istjerati, ali Utumno se pokazuje odveć snažnim.
Varda je ocuvala nešto od Iskonskog Svjetla (u pocetku je to njezina glavna zadaca u Velikoj Prici). Nacinjena su Dva Stabla. Valari stvaraju svoje boravište i svoj dom u Valinoru, na Zapadu.
Sad, jedna od zadaca Stabala (kao i Dragulja kasnije) je bilo vidanje rana koje je nanio Melkor, ali to bi lako moglo imati sebican aspekt: zaustavljanje povijesti-ne nastavljanje s Pricom. Ovakav utjecaj je to imalo i na Valare. Postajali su sve privrženiji Valinoru, gdje su odlazili češće i ostajali duže. Međuzemlje su premalo nadzirali i preslabo zaštitili od Melkora.
Kako se bližio kraj Danima Blagostanja, Valari su shvatili da su se stvari promijenile. Melkor, njegovi zli dusi i čudovišta su ih istjerali iz Međuzemlja; tamo dolaze tek kriomice i na kratko (uglavnom Orome i Yavanna).
Ovaj period je morao biti kratak. Obje strane znaju da se bliži buđenje Djece Božje. Melkor ih želi odmah pokoriti strahom i tamom te ih porobiti. Pomracuje svijet (na margini je dodano: ''na sedam godina?'') onemogucavajuci pogled na nebo koliko god je mogao, što ipak (kako je receno) nije bilo ucinkovito na krajnjem jugu. Veliki oblaci se šire od krajnjeg Sjevera (gdje su gusti) prema središnjem dijelu (Endor). Mjesec i zvijezde se ne mogu vidjeti. Dan i na svom vrhuncu izgleda tek kao tamni sumrak. Jedino svjetlo je u Valinoru.
Varda sa svojom moci i Manwe s moci Vjetrova ustaju protiv Oblaka Zamracenja. No čim ga potrgaju, Melkor ponovno zatvori veo-barem nad Međuzemljem. Tada je zapuhao Manweov Veliki Vjetar i potrgao veo. Zvijezde sjaju čisto čak i na Sjeveru (Valakirka) izgledajuci zastrašujuce svijetlo nakon duge tame.
Baš u tom prijašnjem mraku probudili su se vilenjaci. Prvi prizor koji u mraku vide su zvijezde. No Melkor šalje zatamnjenje s Istoka i zvijezde blijede zapadno. Zbog toga od samog pocetka razmišljaju o svjetlu i ljepoti na Zapadu.
Dolazak Oromeov.
Treca Bitka i Melkorovo zatoceništvo. Eldari odlaze u Valinor. Oblaci se polako raspršuju nakon što je Melkor zarobljen, iako se iz Utumna još izdižu pare. Najtamnije je istocno, najdalje od Manweovog daha.
Seoba Eldara za vrijeme velikih Kiša?
Ljudi se bude na Otoku sred poplava i docekuju Sunce koje, izgleda, izlazi na Istoku. Napuštaju Otok raseljavajuci se tek onda kada svijet postaje suši.
Tim putem idu samo ljudi koji su susreli vilenjake i čuli glasine o Zapadu. Jer su vilenjaci rekli : '' ako uživaš u Suncu, hodat ćeš njegovom stazom.''
Dolazak ljudi će stoga biti smješten puno prije. Ovo rješenje će biti bolje; jer samo 400 godina nije dovoljno za razvoj raznolikosti i napredak (npr. Edaina) u Felagundovo vrijeme. Ljudi se moraju probuditi dok je Melkor još uvijek na Ardi? –zbog njihova Pada. Dakle, u nekom periodu za vrijeme Velike Seobe.

Ovdje završava tekst. Slijedi povezana prica, pojavno jednaka gornjoj diskusiji (oba dijela pisana su jednakim, poprilicno neobicnim, rukopisom)
 
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Morfiwen
Posted: Sep 13 2007, 08:53 AM 792490


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HOME-MORGOTH'S RING-V. MYTHS TRANSFORMED

III.


This very brief and hasty statement was found in a small collection of
such notes folded in a newspaper of April 1959. It was written on a
slip of paper torn from a bill from Merton College dated in June 1955;
a similar bill of October 1955 was used for a passage of drafting for
the Athrabeth (p. 352). I have noticed (p. 304) that the use of such
documents of the year 1955 might suggest that the Athrabeth was not
the work of a single concentrated period, although if my father had
prepared a supply of such slips for brief notes or passages of drafting
and other purposes the date would be misleading.
What happened in Valinor after the Death of the Trees? Aman
was 'unveiled' - it had been covered with a dome (made by
Varda) of mist or cloud down through which no sight would
pierce nor light. This dome was lit by stars - in imitation of the
great Firmament of Ea. This now rendered Valinor dark except
for starlight [i.e. after the death of the Trees]. It was removed
and Aman was lit by the Sun - its blessing was thus removed.
(Melkor's defilement of the Sun must thus precede the Two
Trees which had light of Sun and Stars before Melkor [?tainted]
it - or the Trees [?could ?would] be lit by light before the
[?Turbulence] of Melkor.)
I do not feel altogether certain of the meaning of the extremely
elliptical concluding sentence in brackets, but it should perhaps be
interpreted thus - as the statement of a problem arising from what has
been said. The Dome of Varda must have been contrived after the
ravishing of Arie by Melkor, in order to keep out the Sun's polluted
light,(1) and Aman was lit beneath the Dome by the Two Trees. But on
the other hand, it is an essential idea that the light of the Trees was
derived from the Sun before it was 'tainted'. A resolution of this
conflict may be found (reading 'could', not 'would', in the last phrase)
in the idea that the light of the Trees was an unsullied light preserved
by Varda from a time before the assaults of Melkor.
In the initial discussion in text II it is made clear that the Sun had
been defiled before the Two Trees came into being: 'Now one of the
objects of the Trees... was the healing of the hurts of Melkor' (p. 377);
but it is also said that 'Varda has preserved some of the Primeval
Light... The Two Trees are made.' This appears to be the solution to
which my father came in the present text, thus suggesting that it
preceded text II. On the other hand, there is no suggestion of the
Dome of Varda in text II, and that text gives the impression that my
father was beginning a new story, working it out as he went. It is
probably vain to try to establish a clear sequence of composition from
these papers, since he might return to the same problem and find what
appears to be the same resolution at different times.
It is a notable fact that the Dome of Varda appears in my father's
final work on the narrative text of the Quenta Silmarillion Chapter 6
(p. 286, $57). Where in AAm (p. 98, $108) it was told that Melkor,
with Ungoliante beside him, looked out from the summit of Mount
Hyarantar and 'saw afar ... the silver domes of Valmar gleaming in
the mingling of the lights of Telperion and Laurelin', in the Quenta
Silmarillion Ungoliante (now, in the changed story, lying on the
summit alone) 'saw the glimmer of the stars in the dome of Varda and
the radiance of Valmar far away.' Thus when later in the final
rewriting ('The Rape of the Silmarils', p. 293, $1) it is told that above
the Valar sitting in the Ring of Doom 'the stars of Varda now
glimmered overhead', it must be the stars of the Dome that were
glimmering.(2)

HOME-Morgothov Prsten-V. Preobrazba mitova

III.


Ova, veoma kratka i ishitrena, bilješka je pronađena među zbirkom slicnih tekstova umotanih u novine iz travnja 1959. godine. Napisana je na komadu papira otrgnutom od oglasa s koledža Merton iz lipnja 1955. godine; jednak oglas je u listopadu 1955. iskorišten kao prijelaz u nacrtu Athrabeth-a. Primijetio sam da bi korištenje takvih dokumenata iz 1955. moglo znaciti da Athrabeth nije nastao u nekom određenom vremenski jedinstvenom periodu, no ako je moj otac pripremio zalihu takvih papira za kratke upute, prijelaze u nacrtima i ostalo, onda bi ovaj datum bio varljiv.

Što se dogodilo u Valinoru nakon uvenuca Stabala? Aman je bio ''otkriven''-potom je natkriven kupolom (koju je nacinila Varda) od magle ili oblaka kroz koju se nije mogla probiti svjetlost niti se kroz nju moglo vidjeti. Ovu kupolu stvorile su zvijezde- kao imitaciju velikog Neba Ea-e. Ovo je, uz iznimku zvjezdane svjetlosti, pomracilo Valinor (nakon uvenuca Stabala). Kupola je maknuta je i Aman je zapalilo Sunce- stoga je njegov blagoslov izostao. (zato Melkorovo oskvrnuce Sunca mora prethoditi Dvama Stablima koja su imala suncevu i zvjezdanu svjetlost prije nego li ju je (okaljao?)Melkor- ili bi Stabla (mogla biti/bila?) osvijetljena prije Melkorova (Napada?).

Sve u svemu, nisam siguran za znacenje veoma površne zakljucne recenice u zagradama, ali možda je treba ovako interpretirati- kao uocavanje problema koji se izdiže iz prethodno recenog. Vardina Kupola morala je nastati nakon Melkorova oskvrnuca Aren, kako bi odbila zagađeno suncevo zracenje, a Aman je ispod Kupole osvijetljen svjetlošću Dvaju Stabala. S druge strane, bitna zamisao je i ona da je svjetlost Stabala potekla od Sunca prije njegovog oskvrnuca. Razrješenje ovog konflikta moglo bi se naci (ako se čita ''mogla'' umjesto ''bila'' u zadnjoj recenici) u tezi da je svjetlost Drveca neokaljano svjetlo koje je Varda ocuvala još od vremena prije Melkorovih napada.
Iz pocetne rasprave u tekstu II jasno proizlazi da je Sunce oskvrnuto prije nastanka Stabala: '' Sad, jedna od zadaca Stabala … je bilo vidanje rana koje je nanio Melkor'' ; također je receno i da je ''Varda ocuvala nešto od Iskonskog Svjetla…napravljena su Dva Stabla''. Čini se da je ovo rješenje kojem se domislio moj otac u gore navedenom tekstu, pod pretpostavkom da je prethodio tekstu II. S druge strane, nema spomena Vardine Kupole u tekstu II. , što ostavlja dojam da je moj otac zapocinjao novu pricu razrađujuci je u hodu. Vjerojatno bi bilo pretenciozno pokušati ustanoviti jasan slijed price iz ovih papira, jer se on mogao vratiti istom problemu i pronaci gotovo isto rješenje u razlicitim razdobljima.
Bitna činjenica je da se Vardina Kupola pojavljuje u ocevom posljednjem radu na pripovjedackom tekstu Quenta Silmarilliona u 6. Poglavlju. Gdje je receno da je Melkor, zajedno s Ungoliant, gledao s vrha planine Hyarantar te ''u daljini vidio…srebrne kupole Valmara koje su bliještile od miješanja svjetala Telperiona i Laurelina'', u Quenta Silmarillionu je Ungoliant (koja je sada, u promijenjenoj verziji, sama ležala na vrhu) ''vidjela sjaj zvijezda u Vardinoj Kupoli i blještavilo Valmara u daljini''. Dakle, kad se kasnije u finalnom prijepisu (''Otimacina Silmarila'') govori da su nad Valarima u Prstenu Usuda ''sjale Vardine zvijezde'', to mora znaciti da su sjale zvijezde u Kupoli.

Edited by Morfiwen - Sep 13 2007, 09:56 AM
 
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Morfiwen
Posted: Sep 13 2007, 08:56 AM 792491


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HOME-MORGOTH'S RING-V. MYTHS TRANSFORMED

IV.


There is a further statement about the Dome of Varda in a manuscript
to which I have several times referred (VI.466; VIII.20; IX.73), an
analysis (in intention) of all fragments of other languages found in The
Lord of the Rings. The passage that I quote here comes from a long
note on the song to Elbereth at the end of the chapter 'Many
Meetings'. It may be mentioned incidentally that my father noted on
the word menel: 'the heavens, the apparent dome of the sky. (Probably
a Quenya word introduced into Sindarin. It was opposed to kemen
"the Earth" as an apparent flat floor under menel. But these were
"pictorial" words, as the lore of the Eldar and the Numenoreans knew
much astronomy.)'
The passage concerning the Dome arises from the statement that
Elbereth has el- 'star' prefixed (with the note 'But since b is not
mutated the name is probably to be referred to *elen-barathi >
elmbereth').
The mythological association of Varda with the stars is of
twofold origin. In the 'demiurgic period', before the establish-
ment of Arda 'the Realm', while the Valar in general (including
an unnamed host of others who never came to Arda)(1) were
labouring in the general construction of Ea (the World or
Universe), Varda was in Eldarin and Numenorean legend said
to have designed and set in their places most of the principal
stars; but being (by destiny and desire) the future Queen of
Arda, in which her ultimate function lay, especially as the lover
and protectress of the Quendi, she was concerned not only with
the great Stars in themselves, but also in their relations to Arda,
and their appearance therefrom (and their effect upon the
Children to come). Such forms and major patterns, therefore, as
we call (for instance) the Plough, or Orion, were said to be her
designs. Thus the Valacirca or 'Sickle of the Gods', which was
one of the Eldarin names for the Plough, was, it was said,
intended later to be a sign of menace and threat of vengeance
over the North in which Melkor took up his abode (Varda was
the most foresighted of all the Valar, possessing the clearest
memory of the Music and Vision in which she had played only a
small part as actor or player, but had listened most attentively).(2)
Later, when the Valar took refuge from Melkor, and the
imminent ruin of Arda, and built and fortified Valinor in Aman,
it was Varda who made the great dome above Valinor, to keep
out any spirits or spies of Melkor. It was made as a simulacrum
of the true firmament (Tar-menel), and the patterns were therein
repeated, but with apparent stars (or 'sparks': tinwi) of greater
relative size to the total visible area. So that the lesser firmament
of Valinor (Nur-menel) was very brilliant.
From this work (chiefly: but also her original demiurgic
labours were included) she was called 'Star-kindler'. Note that
Velen properly referred to the real stars of Ea (but could also
naturally be transferred to their imagines). The words tinwe,
nille' (Vtin 'spark', Vngil 'silver glint') and Sindarin tim, gil
referred properly to the Valinorian imagines. Hence Quenya
Tintalle from tinta cause to sparkle, but also Elentari Queen
of Stars'; Sindarin Elbereth, but also Gilthoniel.(3)
This note on Elbereth ends with a slightly jumbled and obscure
statement to the effect that Gilthoniel is derived from the stems Vngil
and Vthan / than 'kindle, set light to'; iel a feminine suffix correspond-
ing to male -we.
These remarks on Varda seem to raise further questions. In text II
(pp. 375 - 6) my father declared that 'the cosmogonic mythology
should represent Arda as it is, more or less: an island in the void
"amidst the innumerable stars"'; that 'the Stars, therefore, in general
will be other and remoter parts of the Great Tale of Ea, which do not
concern the Valar of Arda'; and that 'Varda, therefore, as one of the
great Valar of Arda, cannot be said to have "kindled" the stars, as an
original subcreative act - not at least the stars in general.' I have taken
this to mean (p. 384 note 4) that the 'star-making' of Varda was to be
confined to (at most) the making of the 'Great Stars' before the
Awakening of the Elves. In the present text, on the other hand,
appears the remarkable conception that the 'demiurgic' work of Varda
was the making and disposition of certain 'principal' stars, which
should in ages to come, after the establishment of the Earth, be visible
in its skies as figures significant of its history - the 'dramatic centre'
of Ea.
While I think it certain that this text comes from the late 1950s,
there seems no way in which to date it more precisely either externally
or in relation to other writings.


HOME-Morgothov Prsten-V. Preobrazba mitova

IV.


Slijedeca bilješka o Vardinoj Kupoli nalazi se u rukopisu na koji sam se osvrnuo više puta (VI.466; VIII.20;IX.73), to je analiza (idejna) svih fragmenata drugih jezika koji se mogu pronaci u Gospodaru Prstenova. Prijelaz koji ovdje citiram potjece iz poduže bilješke uz pjesmu za Elbereth na kraju poglavlja ''Mnogi Susreti''. Uzgred se može spomenuti da je moj otac uz riječ menel zabilježio: ''nebesa, ocigledno kupola neba''. (Vjerojatno riječ na Quenyi unesena u Sindarinski. Suprotstavljena je rijeci kemen-''Zemlja'' kao jasnom ravnom tlu pod menel-om. No ovo su bile tek ''slikovite'' rijeci s obzirom na to da su eldarski ucenjaci i Numenorejci znali mnogo o astronomiji.)
Prijelaz teksta u vezi s Kupolom proizlazi iz recenice da Elbereth ima el –prefiks koji znaci ''zvijezda'' (uputa: ''Ali s obzirom na to da se b nije promijenilo, ime bi vjerojatno trebalo glasiti elen-barathi >elembereth'')

Mitološka povezanost Varde sa zvijezdama je dvovrsnog podrijetla. U ''demiurškom periodu'', prije ustanovljenja ''Kraljevstva'' Arde, dok su Valari opcenito (ukljucujuci i bezimeno mnoštvo ostalih koji nikada nisu došli na Ardu) radili na velikom stvaranju Ea-e (Svijeta ili Svemira), za Vardu se u Eldarskim i Numenorejskim legendama vjeruje da je stvorila i na njihova mjesta postavila vecinu najvažnijih zvijezda; ali se kao buduca kraljica Arde (i po usudu i po želji), što je bila njezina vrhovna funkcija, posebno kao ljubiteljica i zaštitnica Quenda, nije bavila samo velikim Zvijezdama po sebi, već i njihovim odnosom spram Arde i njihovom otadašnjom pojavom (te njihovim utjecajem na nadolazecu Djecu). Stoga se za takve oblike i velike strukture, koje nazivamo npr. Velika Kola ili Orion, smatra da su njezina djela. Tako je Valacirca ili ''Srp Bogova'', što je bilo jedno od Eldarskih imena za Velika Kola, kasnije trebala postati znakom nevolje i prijetnje osvetom nad Sjeverom gdje je Melkor pronašao utocište (Varda je mogla predvidjeti više od ostalih Valara, posjedujuci najjasnije sjecanje na Glazbu i Viziju u kojoj je igrala malu ulogu, ali zato pozorno slušajuci).
Kasnije, kada su Valari pobjegli od Melkora i neposrednog uništenja Arde, te izgradili i utvrdili Valinor u Amanu, Varda je izgradila veliku kupolu nad Valinorom, da zaprijeci dolazak bilo kakvih duhova ili Melkorovih špijuna. Napravljena je kao imitacija pravog neba (Tar-menel), i u njoj su ponovljene iste strukture, ali s jasnim zvijezdama (ili ''iskrama'': tinwi) prosjecno vecima naspram cjeline vidljivog podrucja. Tako da je niži svod Valinora (Nur-menel) bio veoma osvijetljen.
Zbog ovog rada (uglavnom: ali se također pribrajaju njezini radovi kao nižeg božanstva na samom pocetku) je nazvana ''Stvarateljica Zvijezda''. Zapazite da se Velen s razlogom odnosi na prave zvijezde Ea-e (ali se naravno može prenijeti i na njihove preslike). Rijeci tinwe, nille' (Vtin ''iskra'', Vngil ''srebrni bljesak'') i sindarinski tim, gil se jasno odnose na valinorske preslike. Pošto Tintalle na Quenyi zbog tinta znaci svjetlucanje, tako i Elentari ''Kraljica Zvijezda''; sindarinski Elbereth ali također i Gilthoniel.

Ova bilješka o Elbereth završava s donekle pobrkanom i nejasnom recenicom koja stvara dojam da je Gilthoniel izvedeno od korijena Vngil i Vthan/prije nego od ''upaliti; dati svjetlost necemu'' ; -iel, ženski sufiks odgovara muškom –we.
Ove bilješke o Vardi postavljaju nova pitanja. U tekstu II (str. 375/6.) moj otac je izjavio da ''mitologija geneze treba predstavljati Ardu, manje-više, onakvu kakva jest: otok u ništavilu 'među nebrojenim zvijezdama'''; zatim ''Dakle, zvijezde bi opcenito bile drukciji i udaljeniji dijelovi Velike Price o Ea-i koje nisu povezane s Valarima Arde.''; i '' Stoga se za Vardu, kao jednu od viših Vala Arde, ne može reci da je 'upalila' zvijezde kao samostalni čin pod-kreacije- barem ne zvijezde opcenito.'' Ovo sam shvatio tako da znaci da je Vardino ''stvaranje zvijezda'' ograniceno (maksimalno) na stvaranje ''Velikih Zvijezda'' prije buđenja vilenjaka. S druge strane, u ovom tekstu se javlja neobicna koncepcija da se Vardin ''božanski rad'' sastoji u stvaranju i postavljanju određenih ''najvažnijih'' zvijezda koje bi u nadolazecim godinama, nakon formiranja Zemlje, trebale biti vidljive na njezinom nebu kao bitan element njezine povijesti- ''dramatian centar'' Ea-e.
Iako sam siguran da je ovaj tekst nastao u kasnim pedesetima, izgleda da nema nacina da ga se preciznije datira, bilo u odnosu na druge tekstove bilo nevezano za njih.
 
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Morfiwen
Posted: Sep 14 2007, 08:37 AM 792932


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HOME-MORGOTH'S RING-V. MYTHS TRANSFORMED


V.
This brief comment, entitled 'Sun The Trees Silmarils', is found on
a single sheet, together with other more substantial writings similar in
appearance, preserved in a folded newspaper of November 1958.
The making of the Sun after the Death of the Trees is not only
impossible 'mythology' now - especially since the Valar must be
supposed to know the truth about the structure of Ea (and not
make mythical guesses like Men) and to have communicated
this to the Eldar (and so to Numenoreans!) - it is also im-
possible chronologically in the Narrative.
The Sun existed as part of the Kingdom of Arda. In so far as
there was darkness (and diminishment of growth in Arda
consequently) when the Valar removed to Aman it was due to
obscurations devised by Melkor: clouds and smokes (a volcanic
era!).
The Sun was the immediate source of the light of Arda. The
Blessedness of the Trees (as compared with other growing
things later) was that they were kindled and illumined with the
light of the Sun and Moon before these were tainted. The attack
of Melkor on the Sun (and Moon) must therefore be subsequent
to the establishment of Valinor, and be Melkor's effort to
produce darkness.
Since the Silmarils were kindled from the Trees after the
Death of the Trees, this 'light of the Unmarred Sun' remained
only in them.
In text III, my father's note on the removal of the Dome of Varda
after the death of the Trees, he was confronted by the problem (if my
analysis of his meaning is correct, p. 386) that 'Melkor's defilement of
the Sun must precede the Two Trees', whereas the light of the Trees
was derived from the unsullied light of the Sun and Moon. Here he
concludes that 'the attack of Melkor on the Sun (and Moon) must be
subsequent to the establishment of Valinor'.
The word after in the concluding sentence is no more than a slip in
extremely rapid writing.

HOME-Morgothov Prsten-V. Preobrazba mitova

V.
Ovaj kratak tekst, naslovljen ''Sunce Stabla Silmarili'', se nalazi na jednom papiru zajedno s drugim bitnim napisima, pojavno jednakima, ocuvanima u svijenim novinama iz studenog 1958.

Stvaranje Sunca nakon uvenuca Stabala sad više nije samo nemoguca ''mitologija''- pogotovo zbog pretpostavke da Valari znaju istinu o strukturi Ea-e (a ne izmišljaju mitove poput ljudi) i da su je priopcili Eldarima (tako i Numenorejcima!)-nego je i u Prici kronološki nemoguca.
Sunce je postojalo kao dio Kraljevstva Arde. Ukoliko je i bilo tame (i usporavanja razvoja na Ardi) kada su se Valari povukli u Aman, bilo je to zbog pomrcina koje je nacinio Melkor: oblacima i dimom (vulkanska era!)
Sunce je bilo neposredni izvor svjetla za Ardu. Blaženost Stabala (u usporedbi s drugim kasnije izraslim stvarima) sastojala se u tome što su upaljena i osvijetljena svjetlošću Sunca i Mjeseca prije nego li su okaljani. Dakle, Melkorov napad na Sunce (i Mjesec) mora uslijediti nakon ustanovljenja Valinora i predstavljati Melkorov pokušaj da stvori tamu.
S obzirom na to da su Silmarili stvoreni od Stabala nakon njihova uvenuca, ova ''svjetlost Neokaljanog Sunca'' je ostala samo u njima.

U tekstu III., bilješci mog oca o uklanjanju Vardine Kupole nakon Smrti Stabala, suocio se s problemom (ako je moja analiza njegova mišljenja tocna, str. 386.) da Melkorovo ''oskvrnuce Sunca mora prethoditi Dvama Stablima'' ali također da je svjetlost Stabala izvedena od neokaljanog svjetla Sunca i Mjeseca. Ovdje zakljucuje da ''Melkorov napad na Sunce (i Mjesec) mora uslijediti nakon ustanovljenja Valinora''.
Riječ ''nakon'' u zakljucnoj recenici ne predstavlja ništa više od pogreške u prebrzom pisanju.
 
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Morfiwen
Posted: Sep 16 2007, 04:06 PM 793712


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HOME-MORGOTH'S RING-V. MYTHS TRANSFORMED

VI.
This text, entitled Melkor with Morgoth written beneath, is from the
same collection as is text III (found in a newspaper dated April 1959),
and was written on four slips made from further copies of the same
Merton College documents dated June 1955 as is the draft A of the
Athrabeth (pp. 350 - 2). The slip on which text III is written carries
also preliminary drafting for the present essay on Melkor.
It is notable that text VI begins with a reference to 'Finrod and
Andreth', which was therefore in existence, at least in some form.
Melkor Morgoth.
Melkor must be made far more powerful in original nature (cf.
'Finrod and Andreth'). The greatest power under Eru (sc. the
greatest created power).(1) (He was to make I devise I begin;
Manwe (a little less great) was to improve, carry out, complete.)
Later, he must not be able to be controlled or 'chained' by all
the Valar combined. Note that in the early age of Arda he was
alone able to drive the Valar out of Middle-earth into retreat.
The war against Utumno was only undertaken by the Valar
with reluctance, and without hope of real victory, but rather as
a covering action or diversion, to enable them to get the Quendi
out of his sphere of influence. But Melkor had already pro-
gressed some way towards becoming 'the Morgoth, a tyrant
(or central tyranny and will), + his agents'.(2) Only the total
contained the old power of the complete Melkor; so that if 'the
Morgoth' could be reached or temporarily separated from his
agents he was much more nearly controllable and on a power-
level with the Valar. The Valar find that they can deal with his
agents (sc. armies, Balrogs, etc.) piecemeal. So that they come at
last to Utumno itself and find that 'the Morgoth' has no longer
for the moment sufficient 'force' (in any sense) to shield himself
from direct personal contact. Manwe at last faces Melkor again,
as he has not done since he entered Arda. Both are amazed:
Manwe to perceive the decrease in Melkor as a person; Melkor
to perceive this also from his own point of view: he has now less
personal force than Manwe, and can no longer daunt him with
his gaze.
Either Manwe must tell him so or he must himself suddenly
realize (or both) that this has happened: he is 'dispersed'. But
the lust to have creatures under him, dominated, has become
habitual and necessary to Melkor, so that even if the process
was reversible (possibly was by absolute and unfeigned self-
abasement and repentance only) he cannot bring himself to do
it.* As with all other characters there must be a trembling
moment when it is in the balance: he nearly repents - and does
not, and becomes much wickeder, and more foolish.
Possibly (and he thinks it possible) he could now at that
moment be humiliated against his own will and 'chained' - if
and before his dispersed forces reassemble. So - as soon as he
has mentally rejected repentance - he (just like Sauron after-
wards on this model) makes a mockery of self-abasement and
repentance. From which actually he gets a kind of perverted
pleasure as in desecrating something holy - [for the mere
contemplating of the possibility of genuine repentance, if that
did not come specially then as a direct grace from Eru, was at
least one last flicker of his true primeval nature.](3) He feigns
remorse and repentance. He actually kneels before Manwe and
surrenders - in the first instance to avoid being chained by the
Chain Angainor, which once upon him he fears would not ever
be able to be shaken off. But also suddenly he has the idea of
(* [footnote to the text] One of the reasons for his self-weakening
is that he has given to his 'creatures', Orcs, Balrogs, etc. power of
recuperation and multiplication. So that they will gather again
without further specific orders. Part of his native creative power has
gone out into making an independent evil growth out of his control.)
penetrating the vaunted fastness of Valinor, and ruining it. So
he offers to become 'the least of the Valar' and servant of them
each and all, to help (in advice and skill) in repairing all the evils
and hurts he has done. It is this offer which seduces or deludes
Manwe - Manwe must be shown to have his own inherent fault
(though not sin):* he has become engrossed (partly out of sheer
fear of Melkor, partly out of desire to control him) in amend-
ment, healing, re-ordering - even 'keeping the status quo' - to
the loss of all creative power and even to weakness in dealing
with difficult and perilous situations. Against the advice of some
of the Valar (such as Tulkas) he grants Melkor's prayer.
Melkor is taken back to Valinor going last (save for Tulkas +
who follows bearing Angainor and clinking it to remind
Melkor).
But at the council Melkor is not given immediate freedom.
The Valar in assembly will not tolerate this. Melkor is remitted
to Mandos (to stay there in 'reclusion' and meditate, and
complete his repentance - and also his plans for redress).(4)
Then he begins to doubt the wisdom of his own policy, and
would have rejected it all and burst out into flaming rebellion -
but he is now absolutely isolated from his agents and in enemy
territory. He cannot. Therefore he swallows the bitter pill (but
it greatly increases his hate, and he ever afterward accused
Manwe of being faithless).
The rest of the story, with Melkor's release, and permission to
attend the Council sitting at the feet of Manwe (after the pattern
of evil counsellors in later tales, which it could be said derive
from this primeval model?), can then proceed more or less as
already told.
In this short essay it is seen that in his reflections on the nature of
Melkor, the vastness of his primeval power and its 'dispersion', my
(* [footnote to the text] Every finite creature must have some
weakness: that is some inadequacy to deal with some situations. It is
not sinful when not willed, and when the creature does his best (even if
it is not what should be done) as he sees it - with the conscious intent
of serving Eru.)
(+ [footnote to the text] Tulkas represents the good side of 'violence'
in the war against evil. This is an absence of all compromise which will
even face apparent evils (such as war) rather than parley; and does not
(in any kind of pride) think that any one less than Eru can redress this,
or rewrite the tale of Arda.)
father had been led to propose certain important alterations in the
narrative of the legends as told in the Quenta Silmarillion (pp. 161,
186) and in the Annals of Aman (pp. 75, 80, 93). In the narrative as
it stood, and as it remained,(5) there was no suggestion that Melkor
feigned repentance when (no longer able to 'daunt him with his gaze')
he faced Manwe in Utumno - already harbouring 'the idea of
penetrating the vaunted fastness of Valinor, and ruining it'. On the
contrary, 'Tulkas stood forth as the champion of the Valar and
wrestled with him and cast him upon his face, and bound him with the
chain Angainor'(6) (an ancient element, going back to the richly
pictorial and 'primitive' account in the story of 'The Chaining of
Melko' in The Book of Lost Tales, 1.100 - 4). Moreover, in the present
text it was now, defeated at Utumno, that Melkor offered to become
'the least of the Valar', and to aid them in the redress of all the evils that
he had brought to pass, whereas in the narratives he did this when he
came before the Valar after he had endured the ages of his incarcera-
tion in Mandos and sued for pardon. Of Manwe it was said, when
Melkor was allowed to go freely about Valinor, that he believed that
his evil was cured: 'for he himself was free from the evil and could not
comprehend it'. No such flaw or 'inherent fault' in Manwe as is
described in this essay was suggested;(7) although it was told that Ulmo,
and Tulkas, doubted the wisdom of such clemency (and this too is an
element that goes back to The Book of Lost Tales: 'Such was the
doom of Manwe... albeit Tulkas and Palurien thought it merciful to
peril' (I.105)).

HOME-Morgothov Prsten-V. Preobrazba mitova

VI.

Ovaj tekst, naslovljen ''Melkor'' s ''Morgoth'' napisanim ispod toga, potjece iz iste zbirke kao i tekst III (pronađen u novinama iz travnja 1959.) i napisan je na četiri komada papira koji su kopije istih dokumenata koledža Merton datiranih u lipanj 1955. kao i nacrt A Athrabetha (str. 350-52.). Također, papir na kojem je napisan tekst III sadrži i prethodni nacrt ovog teksta o Melkoru.
Važno je zamijetiti da tekst VI zapocinje s opaskom o ''Finrodu i Andreth'', što znaci da je prica tada postojala, barem u nekom obliku.

Melkor Morgoth

Melkor, u svojoj prvotnoj naravi, mora biti napravljen mnogo mocnijim. (usporedi ''Finrod i Andreth''). Najveca moć pod Eruom (najjaca stvorena moć). (On je trebao biti onaj koji zamišlja, koji zapocinje, Manwe (nešto slabiji) je trebao poboljšavati, nastaviti, završiti.)
Ne smije se omoguciti da ga kasnije kontroliraju ili ''okuju'' svi Valari zajedno. Zamijetite da je u ranom periodu on bio sposoban samostalno otjerati Valare iz Međuzemlja i natjerati ih na povlacenje.
Valari su oklijevajuci ušli u rat protiv Utumna i bez nade u pobjedu, bio je to više zaštitnicki pothvat ili diverzija koja bi im je trebala omoguciti da maknu Quende iz sfere njegova utjecaja. No, Melkor je već na neki nacin uznapredovao u postajanju onim što zovemo ''Morgoth, tiranin (ili centralna tiranija i volja) + njegovi sluge''. Samo je cjelina sadržavala staru moć kompletnog Melkora; stoga, ako bi ga se moglo dohvatiti kao ''samog Morgotha'' ili privremeno odvojenog od svojih sluga, bilo ga je manje teško kontrolirati i bio je na istoj razini moci kao ostali Valari. Valari spoznaju da se pojedinacno mogu nositi s njegovim slugama (na primjer vojskama, Balrozima itd.). Napokon stižu do samog Utumna i shvacaju da ''Morgoth'' trenutacno nema dovoljno snage(u bilo kojem smislu) da se zaštiti od izravnog osobnog kontakta. Manwe se napokon opet suocava s Melkorom, što nije ucinio otkad je došao na Ardu. Obojica su zacuđena: Manwe spoznajom o padu Melkora kao osobe, Melkor također tom spoznajom, ali iz svog kuta gledanja: sada ima manje osobne moci od Manwea i više ga ne može prestrašiti svojim pogledom.
Ili mu mora reci Manwe ili on sam mora naglo shvatiti (ili pak oboje) da se dogodilo ovo: ''on se raspršio''. No želja za podanicima koje kontrolira je Melkoru postala uobicajena i potrebna, tako da je i mogao obrnuti proces (možda eventualno kroz potpuno i nepatvoreno samoponiženje i pokajanje) nije se na to mogao natjerati.* Kao sa svim drugim likovima mora postojati prijelomni trenutak kada je lik u ravnoteži: gotovo se pokaje-ali to ne ucini te postane mnogo zlobniji i ishitreniji.
*(bilješka uz tekst: Jedan od razloga njegova slabljenja je taj što je svojim stvorenjima, Orcima, Balrozima itd., dao mogucnost samoizljecenja i razmnožavanja. Tako da su se oni mogli ponovno okupiti bez ikakvih posebnih naredbi. Dio njegove izvorne stvaralacke moci je utrošen na stvaranje nezavisnog stvaranja zla izvan njegove kontrole)
Moguce je (i on misli da je moguce) da bi u ovom trenutku mogao biti protiv svoje volje ponižen i ''okovan'' – ako se njegove snage rasprše i prije nego što se njegove raspršene snage ponovno okupe. Stoga- čim umno odbaci svoje pokajanje- on se (baš kao i Sauron poslije, prema njegovom primjeru) izruguje samoponiženju i pokajanju. Zbog toga on zapravo osjeca nekakav perverzan užitak, kao u oskvrnucu necega svetog-(jer samo razmatranje mogucnosti pokajanja, osim ako nije bila izravna Eruova milost koja je udijeljena baš tada, predstavlja, ako ne ništa, zadnji trzaj njegove istinske prvotne naravi). On glumi žaljenje i kajanje. Čak kleci pred Manweom i predaje se- u pocetku da izbjegne okivanje lancem Angainorom, za kojeg vjeruje da ga nece moci skinuti jednom kad mu ga stave. No, on također odjednom kuje planove da probije u poznati, dobro utvrđeni Valinor i uništi ga. Tako on nudi da postane ''najniži od Valara'', sluga svima i svakom od njih, kako bi pomogao popraviti (savjetom i umješnošću) sva zla i boli koje je nanio. Upravo ova ponuda zavede ili prevari Manwea- Manwe mora biti prikazan tako da ima svoju, urođenu manu (makar ne i grijeh)* : posve se posvetio (djelomicno zbog čistog straha od Melkora, djelomicno iz želje da ga kontrolira) popravljanju, lijecenju, preuređivanju-čak ''održavanju status quo situacije''-što je dovelo do posvemašnjeg gubitka stvaralacke moci i čak slabosti u suocavanju s teškim i opasnim situacijama. Unatoč savjetima nekih od Valara (kao npr. Tulkasa) on usliši Melkorovu molbu.
Melkor je odveden u Valinor, hodajuci posljednji (osim Tulkasa+koji ga slijedi noseci Angainor i udarajuci njime da podsjeti Melkora).
*(bilješka uz tekst: svako ograniceno bice mora imati nekakvu slabost: to jest, nemogucnost da se nosi s nekim situacijama. To nije grešno kad nije namjerno i kad bice daje, po svojem mišljenju, sve od sebe (makar to nije ono što se treba uciniti)-sa svjesnom namjerom da služi Eruu.)
+(bilješka uz tekst: Tulkas predstavlja dobru stranu ''nasilja'' u ratu protiv zla. To je odsutstvo ikakvog kompromisa koje će se suociti čak i s ocitim zlom (poput rata) radije nego pregovarati; i ne misli (nikako s ponosom) da itko niži od Erua takvo što može popraviti, ili ponovno napisati pricu Arde.)
No na vijecu Melkoru nije odmah dana sloboda. Združeni Valari to nece odobriti. Melkor je povjeren Mandosu (da tamo boravi ''u samoci'' i meditira te dovrši svoju pokoru-kao i svoje planove za popravak).
Tada on pocinje sumnjati u mudrost vlastite politike te bi ju bio odbacio i krenuo u žestoku pobunu-no sad je potpuno odvojen od svojih sluga i nalazi se na neprijateljskom teritoriju. Ne može. Stoga on proguta žuč (ali to uvelike poveca njegovu mržnju i uvijek od tada optužuje Manwea za izdaju).
Ostatak price, o Melkorovu oslobađanju i dopuštenju da prisustvuje Vijecu sjedeci pred Manweovim nogama (za ideje o zlocestim savjetnicima u kasnijim pricama se može reci da potjecu iz ovog pocetnog modela?), može teci, manje-više, kako je već napisano.

U ovom kratkom eseju je jasno da je moj otac u razmišljanju o Melkorovoj naravi, obilnosti njegove moci i njezinoj ''raspršenosti'', bio potaknut uvesti određene važne izmjene u legende ispricane u Quenta Silmarillionu (str. 161., 186.) i Amanskim Analima (str. 75., 80., 93.). u prici kakva je bila, i kakva je ostala, nije bilo naznaceno ništa o tome da je Melkor glumio pokajanje kada (ga više nije mogao '' prestrašiti svojim pogledom'') se u Utumnu suocio s Manweom- već smišljajuci ''planove da probije u poznati, dobro utvrđeni Valinor i uništi ga''. Nasuprot tome, ''Tulkas je istupio kao predstavnik Valara, borio se s njim i oborio ga, te ga okovao lancem Angainorom''. (drevni element, seže do slikovite i ''primitivne'' bilješke u prici ''Okivanje Melka'' u Knjizi Izgubljenih Prica, 1. 100-4). Štoviše, u ovom tekstu je odmah sada, nakon poraza u Utumnu, Melkor ponudio da postane ''najniži od Valara'' i da im pomaže u popravljanju zala koja je nanio, dok je u pricama to ucinio kada je izveden pred Valare, nakon što je izdržao godine zatoceništva kod Mandosa i zatražio oprost. Kada je Melkoru dopušteno da slobodno luta Valinorom, za Manwea je receno da je vjerovao da je njegovo zlo izlijeceno: ''jer je on sam bio slobodan od zla i nije to mogao pojmiti''. Takva pogreška ili ''urođena mana'', kakva se spominje u ovom tekstu, se ne nalazi u prici; iako je receno da su Ulmo i Tulkas sumnjali u mudrost takve milosti (i ovo je također element koji proizlazi još iz Knjige Izgubljenih Prica: ''Takav je bio Manweov usud…makar su Tulkas i Palurien tu milost smatrali opasnom'' (1.105.))
 
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Amarië Vëannë
Posted: Sep 21 2007, 08:20 AM 795036


the light aglow


Group: Members
Posts: 1765
Member No.: 832
Joined: 3-January 07



THE HISTORY OF MIDDLE-EARTH: THE PEOPLES OF MIDDLE-EARTH
Teachings of Pengolođ: Of Lembas


Of Lembas
‘This food the Eldar alone knew how to make. It was made for the comfort of those who had need to go upon a long journey in the wild, or of the hurt whose life was in peril. Only these were permitted to use it. The Eldar did not give it to Men, save only to a few whom they loved, if they were in great need.*
The Eldar say that they first received this food from the Valar in the beginning of their days in the Great Journey. For it was made of a kind of corn which Yavanna brought forth in the fields of Aman, and some she sent to them by the hand of Oromë for their succour upon the long march.
* This was not done out of greed or jealousy, although at no time in Middle-earth was there great store of this food; but because the Eldar had been commanded to keep this gift in their own power, and not to make it common to the dwellers in mortal lands. For it is said that, if mortals eat often of this bread, they become weary of their mortality, desiring to abide among the Elves, and longing for the fields of Aman, to which they cannot come. Since it came from Yavanna, the queen, or the highest among the elven-women of any people, great or small, had the keeping and gift of the lembas, for which reason she was called massánie or besain: the Lady, or breadgiver.
Now this corn had in it the strong life of Aman, which it could impart to those who had the need and right to use the bread. If it was sown at any season, save in frost, it soon sprouted and grew swiftly, though it did not thrive in the shadow of plants of Middle-earth and would not endure winds that came out of the North while Morgoth dwelt there. Else it needed only a little sunlight to ripen; for it took swiftly and multiplied all the vigour of any light that fell on it.
The Eldar grew it in guarded lands and sunlit glades; and they gathered its great golden ears, each one, by hand, and set no blade of metal to it. The white haulm was drawn from the earth in like manner, and woven into corn-leeps2 for the storing of the grain: no worm or gnawing beast would touch that gleaming straw, and rot and mould and other evils of Middle-earth did not assail it.
From the ear to the wafer none were permitted to handle this grain, save those elven-women who were called Yavannildi (or by the Sindar the Ivonwin),3 the maidens of Yavanna; and the art of the making of the lembas, which they learned of the Valar, was a secret among them, and so ever has remained.’



'Ovu hranu znali su spravljati samo Eldari. Radili su je za one koji su trebali dugo putovati u divljini, i one čiji je život bio u opasnosti. Samo takvima je bilo dozvoljeno jesti lembas. Eldari ga nisu davali Ljudima, osim nekolicini koje su voljeli, i to samo ako je bilo najpotrebnije (to se nije događalo zbog oholosti ili ljubomore, iako u Međuzemlju nikad nije bilo velikih zaliha lembasa; nego zbog toga što je Eldarima bilo zapovjeđeno da čuvaju taj dar u svojoj moci, i da ne postane zajednicki svim stanovnicima Međuzemlja. Jer receno je da bi se smrtnici koji često jedu od tog kruha umorili od svoje smrtnosti, i poželjeli život s Vilenjacima, i žudeci za poljima Amana, gdje nikad nece moci doci).
Eldari kažu da su lembas prvi put primili od Valara na pocetku Velikog putovanja. Spravljao se od vrste kukuruza koju je Yavannna uzgojila na poljima Amana, a dio je poslala preko Oromea kako bi im pomogao na dugom putovanju.
Pošto je došlo od Yavanne, kraljice, ili najviše od vilenjakinja bilo kojeg naroda, malog ili velikog, imale su na čuvanje dar lembasa, zbog čega su se zvale massánie ili besain: gospa, ili davateljica kruha. Taj je kruh posjedovao snagu života u Amanu, koju je mogao predati onima koji su imali potrebu ili pravo da uzmu kruh. Posijan u bilo kojem dobu, osim u doba mraza, brzo bi pronikao i narastao, iako nije cvjetao u sjeni stabala Međuzemlja i nije mogao izdržati vjetrove sa Sjevera u doba kada je Morgoth tamo boravio. Inace bilo mu je potrebno samo malo sunceve svijetlosti da bi sazreo; jer brzo je primao snagu bilo koje svijetlosti koja je padala na njega.
Eldari su ga uzgajali u zašticenim zemljama i ravnicama obasjanim suncem, i prikupljali su zlatne klipove, svakoga rucno, nikad ne koristeci metalne oštrice. Bijelu steljku su na isti nacin vadili iz zemlje i savijali je u košare u kojima su se čuvala zrna: nijedan crv niti glodavac ne bi dotaknuo to sijeno, i trulež, vlaga i druga zla Međuzemlja ne bi ga mogli napasti.
Od klipa do kruha nikomu nije bilo dozvoljeno da se njime bavi osim onim vilenjakinjama koje su se zvale Yavannildi (ili Sindarski Ivanwin), Yavannine djeve; i umijece spravljanja lembasa, koje su naucile od Valara, bila je njihova tajna, i tako zauvijek ostala. Lembas je sindarsko ime, i dolazi od starijeg oblika lenn-mbass 'putnicki kruh' . Quenijski je najcešće nazivan coimas što znaci 'životni kruh''.
Quente Quengoldo.
 
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Morfiwen
Posted: Sep 21 2007, 09:02 AM 795044


*


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Posts: 2442
Member No.: 489
Joined: 1-December 05



HOME-MORGOTH'S RING-V. MYTHS TRANSFORMED

VII.
This essay is found in two forms. The earlier ('A') is a fairly brief text
of four pages in manuscript, titled 'Some notes on the "philosophy" of
the Silmarillion'; it is rapidly expressed and does not have a clear
ending. The second ('B') is a greatly expanded version of twelve pages,
also in manuscript, of far more careful expression and beginning in
fine script, but breaking off unfinished, indeed in the middle of a
sentence. This is titled 'Notes on motives in the Silmarillion'.
The relation between the two forms is such that for most of its
length there is no need to give any of the text of A, for all of its content
is found embedded in B. From the point (p. 401) where the Valar are
condemned for the raising of the Pelori, however, the texts diverge. In
B my father introduced a long palliation of the conduct of the Valar,
and the essay breaks off before the matter of the concluding section of
A was reached (see note 6); this is therefore given at the end of B.
The text of B was subsequently divided and lettered as three distinct
sections, here numbered (i), (ii), and (iii).
Notes on motives in the Silmarillion.
(i)
Sauron was 'greater', effectively, in the Second Age than
Morgoth at the end of the First. Why? Because, though he was
far smaller by natural stature, he had not yet fallen so low.
Eventually he also squandered his power (of being) in the
endeavour to gain control of others. But he was not obliged to
expend so much of himself. To gain domination over Arda,
Morgoth had let most of his being pass into the physical
constituents of the Earth - hence all things that were born on
Earth and lived on and by it, beasts or plants or incarnate
spirits, were liable to be 'stained'. Morgoth at the time of the
War of the Jewels had become permanently 'incarnate': for this
reason he was afraid, and waged the war almost entirely by
means of devices, or of subordinates and dominated creatures.
Sauron, however, inherited the 'corruption' of Arda, and only
spent his (much more limited) power on the Rings; for it was the
creatures of earth, in their minds and wills, that he desired to
dominate. In this way Sauron was also wiser than Melkor-
Morgoth. Sauron was not a beginner of discord; and he
probably knew more of the 'Music' than did Melkor, whose
mind had always been filled with his own plans and devices, and
gave little attention to other things. The time of Melkor's
greatest power, therefore, was in the physical beginnings of the
World; a vast demiurgic lust for power and the achievement of
his own will and designs, on a great scale. And later after things
had become more stable, Melkor was more interested in and
capable of dealing with a volcanic eruption, for example, than
with (say) a tree. It is indeed probable that he was simply
unaware of the minor or more delicate productions of Yavanna:
such as small flowers.*
Thus, as 'Morgoth', when Melkor was confronted by the
existence of other inhabitants of Arda, with other wills and
intelligences, he was enraged by the mere fact of their existence,
and his only notion of dealing with them was by physical force,
or the fear of it. His sole ultimate object was their destruction.
Elves, and still more Men, he despised because of their 'weak-
ness': that is their lack of physical force, or power over 'matter';
but he was also afraid of them. He was aware, at any rate
originally when still capable of rational thought, that he could
not 'annihilate'** them: that is, destroy their being; but their
physical 'life', and incarnate form became increasingly to his
mind the only thing that was worth considering.+ Or he
(* [footnote to the text] If such things were forced upon his attention,
he was angry and hated them, as coming from other minds than his
own.)
(**[bracketed note inserted into the text] Melkor could not, of
course, 'annihilate' anything of matter, he could only ruin or destroy
or corrupt the forms given to matter by other minds in their sub-
creative activities.)
(+ [footnote without indication of reference in the text] For this)
became so far advanced in Lying that he lied even to himself,
and pretended that he could destroy them and rid Arda of them
altogether. Hence his endeavour always to break wills and
subordinate them to or absorb them into his own will and
being, before destroying their bodies. This was sheer nihilism,
and negation its one ultimate object: Morgoth would no doubt,
if he had been victorious, have ultimately destroyed even his
own 'creatures', such as the Orcs, when they had served his sole
purpose in using them: the destruction of Elves and Men.
Melkor's final impotence and despair lay in this: that whereas
the Valar (and in their degree Elves and Men) could still love
'Arda Marred', that is Arda with a Melkor-ingredient, and
could still heal this or that hurt, or produce from its very
marring, from its state as it was, things beautiful and lovely,
Melkor could do nothing with Arda, which was not from his
own mind and was interwoven with the work and thoughts of
others: even left alone he could only have gone raging on till all
was levelled again into a formless chaos. And yet even so he
would have been defeated, because it would still have 'existed',
independent of his own mind, and a world in potential.
Sauron had never reached this stage of nihilistic madness. He
did not object to the existence of the world, so long as he could
do what he liked with it. He still had the relics of positive
purposes, that descended from the good of the nature in which
he began: it had been his virtue (and therefore also the cause
of his fall, and of his relapse) that he loved order and co-
ordination, and disliked all confusion and wasteful friction. (It
was the apparent will and power of Melkor to effect his designs
quickly and masterfully that had first attracted Sauron to him.)
Sauron had, in fact, been very like Saruman, and so still
understood him quickly and could guess what he would be
likely to think and do, even without the aid of palantiri or of
spies; whereas Gandalf eluded and puzzled him. But like all
minds of this cast, Sauron's love (originally) or (later) mere
understanding of other individual intelligences was correspond-
ingly weaker; and though the only real good in, or rational
motive for, all this ordering and planning and organization was
the good of all inhabitants of Arda (even admitting Sauron's
( reason he himself came to fear 'death' - the destruction of his assumed
bodily form - above everything, and sought to avoid any kind of
injury to his own form.)
right to be their supreme lord), his 'plans', the idea coming from
his own isolated mind, became the sole object of his will, and an
end, the End, in itself.*
Morgoth had no 'plan': unless destruction and reduction to
nil of a world in which he had only a share can be called a
'plan'. But this is, of course, a simplification of the situation.
Sauron had not served Morgoth, even in his last stages, without
becoming infected by his lust for destruction, and his hatred of
God (which must end in nihilism). Sauron could not, of course,
be a 'sincere' atheist. Though one of the minor spirits created
before the world, he knew Eru, according to his measure. He
probably deluded himself with the notion that the Valar
(including Melkor) having failed, Eru had simply abandoned
Ea, or at any rate Arda, and would not concern himself with it
any more. It would appear that he interpreted the 'change of the
world' at the Downfall of Numenor, when Aman was removed
from the physical world, in this sense: Valar (and Elves) were
removed from effective control, and Men under God's curse and
wrath. If he thought about the Istari, especially Saruman and
Gandalf, he imagined them as emissaries from the Valar,
seeking to establish their lost power again and 'colonize'
Middle-earth, as a mere effort of defeated imperialists (without
knowledge or sanction of Eru). His cynicism, which (sincerely)
regarded the motives of Manwe as precisely the same as his
own, seemed fully justified in Saruman. Gandalf he did not
understand. But certainly he had already become evil, and
therefore stupid, enough to imagine that his different behaviour
was due simply to weaker intelligence and lack of firm masterful
purpose. He was only a rather cleverer Radagast - cleverer,
because it is more profitable (more productive of power) to
become absorbed in the study of people than of animals.
Sauron was not a 'sincere' atheist, but he preached atheism,
because it weakened resistance to himself (and he had ceased
to fear God's action in Arda). As was seen in the case of
Ar-Pharazon. But there was seen the effect of Melkor upon
Sauron: he spoke of Melkor in Melkor's own terms: as a god, or
even as God. This may have been the residue of a state which
(* [footnote to the text] But his capability of corrupting other minds,
and even engaging their service, was a residue from the fact that his
original desire for 'order' had really envisaged the good estate
(especially physical well-being) of his 'subjects'.)
was in a sense a shadow of good: the ability once in Sauron at
least to admire or admit the superiority of a being other than
himself. Melkor, and still more Sauron himself afterwards, both
profited by this darkened shadow of good and the services of
'worshippers'. But it may be doubted whether even such a
shadow of good was still sincerely operative in Sauron by that
time. His cunning motive is probably best expressed thus. To
wean one of the God-fearing from their allegiance it is best to
propound another unseen object of allegiance and another hope
of benefits; propound to him a Lord who will sanction what he
desires and not forbid it. Sauron, apparently a defeated rival for
world-power, now a mere hostage, can hardly propound him-
self; but as the former servant and disciple of Melkor, the
worship of Melkor will raise him from hostage to high priest.
But though Sauron's whole true motive was the destruction of
the Numenoreans, this was a particular matter of revenge upon
Ar-Pharazon, for humiliation. Sauron (unlike Morgoth) would
have been content for the Numenoreans to exist, as his own
subjects, and indeed he used a great many of them that he
corrupted to his allegiance.
(ii)
No one, not even one of the Valar, can read the mind of other
'equal beings':* that is one cannot 'see' them or comprehend
them fully and directly by simple inspection. One can deduce
much of their thought, from general comparisons leading to
conclusions concerning the nature and tendencies of minds and
thought, and from particular knowledge of individuals, and
special circumstances. But this is no more reading or inspection
of another mind than is deduction concerning the contents of
a closed room, or events taken place out of sight. Neither is
so-called 'thought-transference' a process of mind-reading: this
is but the reception, and interpretation by the receiving mind, of
the impact of a thought, or thought-pattern, emanating from
another mind, which is no more the mind in full or in itself than
is the distant sight of a man running the man himself. Minds can
exhibit or reveal themselves to other minds by the action of their
(* [marginal note] All rational minds I spirits deriving direct from
Eru are 'equal' - in order and status - though not necessarily 'coeval'
or of like original power.)
own wills (though it is doubtful if, even when willing or desiring
this, a mind can actually reveal itself wholly to any other mind).
It is thus a temptation to minds of greater power to govern or
constrain the will of other, and weaker, minds, so as to induce
or force them to reveal themselves. But to force such a
revelation, or to induce it by any lying or deception, even for
supposedly 'good' purposes (including the 'good' of the person
so persuaded or dominated), is absolutely forbidden. To do so is
a crime, and the 'good' in the purposes of those who commit this
crime swiftly becomes corrupted.
Much could thus 'go on behind Manwe's back': indeed the
innermost being of all other minds, great and small, was hidden
from him. And with regard to the Enemy, Melkor, in particular,
he could not penetrate by distant mind-sight his thought and
purposes, since Melkor remained in a fixed and powerful will to
withhold his mind: which physically expressed took shape in
the darkness and shadows that surrounded him. But Manwe
could of course use, and did use, his own great knowledge, his
vast experience of things and of persons, his memory of the
'Music', and his own far sight, and the tidings of his messengers.
He, like Melkor, practically never is seen or heard of outside
or far away from his own halls and permanent residence. Why is
this? For no very profound reason. The Government is always
in Whitehall. King Arthur is usually in Camelot or Caerleon,
and news and adventures come there and arise there. The 'Elder
King' is obviously not going to be finally defeated or destroyed,
at least not before some ultimate 'Ragnarok'(1) - which even for
us is still in the future, so he can have no real 'adventures'. But,
if you keep him at home, the issue of any particular event (since
it cannot then result in a final 'checkmate') can remain in
literary suspense. Even to the final war against Morgoth it is
Fionwe son of Manwe who leads out the power of the Valar.
When we move out Manwe it will be the last battle, and the end
of the World (or of 'Arda Marred') as the Eldar would say.
[Morgoth's staying 'at home' has, as described above, quite a
different reason: his fear of being killed or even hurt (the literary
motive is not present, for since he is pitted against the Elder
King, the issue of any one of his enterprises is always in doubt).]
Melkor 'incarnated' himself (as Morgoth) permanently. He
did this so as to control the hroa,(2) the 'flesh' or physical matter,
of Arda. He attempted to identify himself with it. A vaster, and
more perilous, procedure, though of similar sort to the opera-
tions of Sauron with the Rings. Thus, outside the Blessed
Realm, all 'matter' was likely to have a 'Melkor ingredient',(3)
and those who had bodies, nourished by the hroa of Arda, had
as it were a tendency, small or great, towards Melkor: they were
none of them wholly free of him in their incarnate form, and
their bodies had an effect upon their spirits.
But in this way Morgoth lost (or exchanged, or transmuted)
the greater part of his original 'angelic' powers, of mind and
spirit, while gaining a terrible grip upon the physical world. For
this reason he had to be fought, mainly by physical force, and
enormous material ruin was a probable consequence of any
direct combat with him, victorious or otherwise. This is the
chief explanation of the constant reluctance of the Valar to
come into open battle against Morgoth. Manwe's task and
problem was much more difficult than Gandalf's. Sauron's,
relatively smaller, power was concentrated; Morgoth's vast
power was disseminated. The whole of 'Middle-earth' was
Morgoth's Ring, though temporarily his attention was mainly
upon the North-west. Unless swiftly successful, War against
him might well end in reducing all Middle-earth to chaos,
possibly even all Arda. It is easy to say: 'It was the task and
function of the Elder King to govern Arda and make it possible
for the Children of Eru to live in it unmolested.' But the
dilemma of the Valar was this: Arda could only be liberated by
a physical battle; but a probable result of such a battle was the
irretrievable ruin of Arda. Moreover, the final eradication of
Sauron (as a power directing evil) was achievable by the
destruction of the Ring. No such eradication of Morgoth was
possible, since this required the complete disintegration of the
'matter' of Arda. Sauron's power was not (for example) in gold
as such, but in a particular form or shape made of a particular
portion of total gold. Morgoth's power was disseminated
throughout Gold, if nowhere absolute (for he did not create
Gold) it was nowhere absent. (It was this Morgoth-element in
matter, indeed, which was a prerequisite for such 'magic' and
other evils as Sauron practised with it and upon it.)
It is quite possible, of course, that certain 'elements' or
conditions of matter had attracted Morgoth's special attention
(mainly, unless in the remote past, for reasons of his own plans).
For example, all gold (in Middle-earth) seems to have had a
specially 'evil' trend - but not silver. Water is represented as
being almost entirely free of Morgoth. (This, of course, does not
mean that any particular sea, stream, river, well, or even vessel
of water could not be poisoned or defiled - as all things could.)


HOME- Morgothov Prsten- V. Preobrazba mitova

VII.
Ovaj esej postoji u dva oblika. Raniji (''A'') je poprilicno kratak tekst od četiri stranice rukopisa, naslovljen ''Neke bilješke o 'filozofiji' Silmarilliona''. Drugi (''B'') je uvelike proširena verzija od dvanaest stranica, također rukopisa, s mnogo pažljivijim izricajem koji zapocinje urednim rukopisom, ali se prekida i ostaje nedovršen, doista, u sred recenice. Naslovljen je ''Bilješke o motivima u Silmarillionu''.
Veza među tekstovima je takva da za veci dio uopce ne treba navoditi tekst A jer je njegov sadržaj uklopljen u tekst B. Tekstovi se ipak razilaze na mjestu gdje su Valari osuđeni zbog podizanja Pelorija (str. 401.). U tekstu B otac donosi dugacko ublažavanje ponašanja Valara i esej se prekida prije nego dospije do zakljucnog dijela teksta A; dakle, to se uvodi u zakljucnom dijelu teksta B.
Tekst B je poslije podijeljen i oznacen kao tri posebna dijela, ovdje oznacena s (i), (iii) i (iii).

Bilješke o motivima u Silmarillionu
(i)
Sauron je ustvari bio ''veci'' u Drugom Dobu, nego Morgoth na kraju Prvog. Zašto? Zbog toga što, iako je bio daleko niži po prirodnoj poziciji, još nije tako nisko pao. S vremenom je i on potratio svoju moć (ili svoje bice) pokušavajuci kontrolirati druge. No on se nije morao toliko mnogo potrošiti. Kako bi zavladao Ardom, Morgoth je dopustio da vecina njegovog bica prijeđe u fizicke dijelove Zemlje-zbog toga što su sve stvari koje su rođene na Zemlji, te živjele na njoj ili kraj nje, bica, biljke ili utjelovljeni duhovi bile podložne ''kvarenju''. U vrijeme Rata Dragulja, Morgoth je postao permanentno ''utjelovljen'': zbog toga se bojao i ratovao gotovo u potpunosti strojevima ili pak slugama i podložnim mu bicima.
S druge strane, Sauron je naslijedio ''iskvarenost'' Arde, i potrošio svoju (daleko više ogranicenu) moć samo na Prstenove; jer je htio vladati bicima zemlje, njihovim umovima i njihovom voljom. U tom pogledu je Sauron bio i mudriji od Melkor-Morgotha. Sauron nije zametnuo razdor; i vjerojatno je znao više o ''Glazbi'' od Melkora čiji je um uvijek bio zaokupljen vlastitim planovima i inovacijama te je pridavao malo pozornosti drugim stvarima. Stoga je Melkorova moć bila na vrhuncu u fizickim pocecima Svijeta; golema, polu-božanska žudnja za moci te intenzivno provođenje vlastite volje i zamisli. I poslije, kad su se stvari stabilizirale, Melkor je bio više zainteresiran i sposoban baviti se npr. erupcijom vulkana nego (recimo) stablom. Zaista je vjerojatno da je jednostavno bio nesvjestan manjih ili nježnijih Yavanninih stvorova: poput malenog cvijeca.*
*(bilješka uz tekst: ako bi se takve stvari nametnule njegovoj pažnji, postao bi ljutit i mrzio ih jer su dolazile iz drugih umova, a ne njegovog vlastitog.)
Dakle, kad se Melkor, kao ''Morgoth'', suocio s postojanjem drugih žitelja Arde, s vlastitom voljom i inteligencijom, razbjesnio se zbog same činjenice njihova postojanja i jedini nacin njegova ophođenja s njima je bio putem fizicke sile ili pak straha od iste. Njegov jedini i posljednji cilj je bilo njihovo uništenje. Vilenjake, i još više ljude, je prezirao zbog njihove ''slabosti'': to jest, njihovog nedostatka fizicke sile ili pak moci nad ''materijom''; ali on ih se također i bojao. Bio je svjestan, barem u pocetku dok je još bio sposoban racionalno razmišljati, da ih ne može ''posve uništiti''**: to jest uništiti njihovo bice; no njihov ''fizicki život'' i utjelovljeni oblik su polako u njegovom umu postajali jedina stvar vrijedna razmatranja.+
**(bilješka u zagradama ubacena u tekst: Naravno, Melkor nije mogao ''potpuno uništiti'' materiju, mogao je samo devastirati, uništiti ili iskvariti oblike materije koje su stvorili drugi umovi u pod-stvaralackim aktivnostima.)
+(bilješka bez naznake o odnosu s tekstom: Jer ovo)
Ili je pak toliko uznapredovao u laganju da je čak i samom sebi lagao pretvarajuci se da ih može uništiti i posve iskorijeniti s Arde. Zato je njegov napad uvijek takav da im najprije slomi volju i podredi ih ili apsorbira u vlastitu volju i bice, prije nego li im uništi tijelo. Ovo je bio puki nihilizam i negacija njegovog jedinog, posljednjeg cilja: Morgoth bi nesumnjivo, da je pobijedio, na kraju uništio čak i svoja ''bica'', poput Orkova, kada bi poslužili svojoj jedinoj svrsi: uništenju vilenjaka i ljudi. Melkorova konacna nemoć i ocaj su bili u ovom: dok su Valari (i na isti nacin vilenjaci i ljudi) još uvijek mogli voljeti ''Oskvrnjenu Ardu'', to jest Ardu s Melkorovim-sastojkom, i još uvijek mogli zacijeliti ovu ili onu ozljedu, ili pak stvarati prekrasne i dražesne stvari iz samog oskvrnuca, iz njenog stanja kakvo je bilo, Melkor s Ardom nije mogao raditi ništa što nije bilo iz njegova vlastitog uma i isprepleteno s radom i mislima drugih: čak i da je ostao sam, mogao je samo bjesnjeti dok se sve ne sravni u amorfni kaos. Pa čak bi i tako bio poražen jer bi on još uvijek ''postojao'', neovisno o njegovu umu, kao potencijalni svijet.
Sauron nikada nije dosegao ovu fazu nihilistickog ludila. Nije prigovarao postojanju svijeta dok god je on s njime mogao raditi što je htio. Još uvijek je imao ostatke pozitivnih ciljeva, to je proizašlo iz dobre naravi s kojom je stvoren: njegova vrlina (stoga, također, i uzrok njegova pada i pogoršanja) je bila ljubav prema redu i koordinaciji i ne podnošenje zbrke i uzaludnih sukoba. (Upravo je jasna Melkorova volja i moć da na njegove izume brzo i umješno djeluje ono što je isprva privuklo Saurona njemu.) Sauron je, zapravo, bio veoma slican Sarumanu, tako da ga je brzo razumio i mogao pogoditi što će ovaj vjerojatno misliti ili uciniti, čak bez pomoci palantira i špijuna; dok mu je Gandalf bio nerazumljiv i zagonetan. No kao kod svih umova svoje vrste, Sauronova je ljubav (u pocetku) ili (poslije) prosto razumijevanje drugih pojedinacnih umova razmjerno slabila; i tako je jedino dobro iz, ili jedini racionalni motiv, svega ovog slaganja, planiranja i organizacije bila dobrobit svih stanovnika Arde (čak priznajuci Sauronovo pravo da im bude vrhovnim vladarom), njegovi ''planovi'', ideja koja je došla iz njegova samotnog uma je postala jedinim ciljem njegove volje, i kraj, Kraj po sebi.*
*(bilješka uz tekst: Ali njegova sposobnost da iskvari druge umove i čak privlacenje u svoju službu je bio relikt koji slijedi iz činjenice da se njegova izvorna želja za ''redom'' ustvari ogledala u dobrom stanju (pogotovo fizickoj dobrobiti) njegovih ''podanika''.)
Morgoth nije imao ''plan'': osim ako se uništenje i svođenje svijeta, u kojem je samo dijelom sudjelovao, na ništavilo može nazvati planom. Ovo je, naravno, pojednostavljeni prikaz situacije.
Sauron nije služio Morgothu bez da je i sam zaražen njegovom žudnjom za uništenjem i mržnjom prema Bogu (što mora završiti nihilizmom). Sauron, naravno, nije mogao biti istinski ''ateist''. Ipak je, u skladu sa svojim sposobnostima, znao za Erua, kao jedan od nižih duhova stvorenih prije svijeta. Vjerojatno se zavaravao mišlju da je nakon neuspjeha Valara (ukljucujuci Melkora) Eru jednostavno napustio Ea-u ili barem Ardu i više se nece baviti njome. Čini se da je interpretirao ''promjenu svijeta'' pri Padu Numenora, kad je Aman izuzet iz pojavnog svijeta, u ovom smislu: Valari (i vilenjaci) su izuzeti iz efektivne kontrole, a ljudi su pali pod Božju kletvu i gnjev. Ako je i razmišljao o Istarima, pogotovo Sarumanu i Gandalfu, zamišljao ih je kao poslanike Valara koji su pokušavali obnoviti svoju izgubljenu moć i ''kolonizirati'' Međuzemlje, kao obican pokušaj poraženih imperijalista (bez Eruova znanja i sankcije). Cinizam kojim je (iskreno) promatrao Manweove motive kao jednake svojima se činio potpuno opravdanim u Sarumanovu slucaju. Gandalfa nije razumio. Ali je sigurno da je već postao zao i, slijedom toga, glup, sasvim dovoljno da pomisli da je razlog njegova drukcijeg ponašanja bila jednostavno niža inteligencija i nedostatak čvrste vladarske svrhe. Bio je tek malo pametnija verzija Radagasta- pametnija, jer je isplativije (zbog sakupljanja moci) posvetiti se proucavanju ljudi nego životinja.
Sauron nije bio istinski ''ateist'', ali je propovijedao ateizam jer je to slabilo otpor prema njemu (te se prestao bojati Božjih intervencija na Ardi). Kao što se moglo vidjeti u slucaju Ar-Pharazona. No tu se vidi i utjecaj Melkora na Saurona: govorio je o Melkoru Melkorovim rijecima: kao o jednom od bogova ili čak kao o Bogu. Ovo bi mogao biti ostatak stanja koje je na neki nacin bilo naznaka dobroga: nekoć postojeca karakteristika kod Saurona da se barem divi ili priznaje superiornost nekog drugog bica umjesto samog sebe. Melkor, i još više sam Sauron poslije, su se obojica okoristili ovom potamnjelom sjenkom dobra i služenjem svojih ''štovatelja''. Može biti dvojbeno je li čak i ta sjena dobra bila istinski ucinkovita kod Saurona u to vrijeme. Možda je njegov prepredeni motiv najbolje izražen ovako. Da bi se bogobojazne odbilo od njihove odanosti, najbolje je ponuditi neki drugi nevidljivi predmet odanosti i drugu nadu u povlastice; ponuditi mu Gospodara koji će odobriti, a ne zabraniti, ono za čime čezne. Sauron, ocigledno poraženi rival u borbi za svjetsku moc sad tek obican taoc, teško može ponuditi sebe; no kao bivši Melkorov sluga i ucenik će se štovanjem Melkora izdignuti od taoca do visokog svecenika. No, iako je Sauronov potpuni i pravi motiv bilo uništenje Numenorejaca, ovo je bio poseban čin osvete Ar-Pharazonu zbog poniženja. Sauron (za razliku od Morgotha) bi bio zadovoljan postojanjem Numenorejaca, kao njegovih sluga, i doista je iskorištavao mnoge koje je uspio privuci u svoju službu.

(ii)
Nitko, čak ni jedan od Valara, ne može čitati misli drugih sebi ''jednakih bica''*: to jest, ne može ih u potpunosti i izravno razumjeti jednostavnim uvidom. Mnogo se može izvesti iz njihove misli, iz opcih usporedbi koje vode do zakljucaka u vezi s naravi i sklonostima umova i misli, iz posebnog znanja o pojedincima i posebnih okolnosti. No ovo nije ništa više čitanje ili uvid u tuđi um nego li je zakljucivanje o sadržaju zatvorene sobe ili događajima koji se odvijaju daleko od ociju. Niti je takozvano ''prenošenje misli'' proces čitanja misli: ovo je tek primanje i interpretacija uma koji prima, utiska misli ili misaonog uzorka koji dolazi iz drugog uma, što nije više punina uma ili um po sebi nego li je udaljeni pogled na čovjeka koji trci sam čovjek. Umovi se mogu predstavljati ili otkrivati drugim umovima vlastitom voljom ( iako je dvojbeno da se um, makar svojevoljno i po vlastitoj želji, može doista u cijelosti otkriti drugom umu). Tako je primamljivo za umove vece moci da vladaju ili ogranice volju drugih, slabijih, umova kako bi ih potaknuli ili natjerali da se otkriju. No prisiljavanje na takvo razotkrivanje ili njegovo poticanje lažima i prijevarom, čak i u navodno ''dobre'' svrhe (ukljucujuci i ''dobrotu'' tako poticane ili prisiljene osobe), je apsolutno zabranjeno. Takvo što je zlocin i ''dobro'' u ciljevima onih koji ga pocine brzo postaje iskvarenim.
*(bilješka: Svi racionalni umovi /duhovi koji izravno proizlaze iz Erua su ''jednaki''-u poretku i statusu- iako ne nužno ''jednako stari'' ili jednake pocetne moci.)
Stoga se mnogo toga moglo ''događati Manweu iza leđa'': doista je najdublja bit svih drugih umova, velikih i malih, njemu bila skrivena. I s obzirom na neprijatelja, Melkora, pogotovo nije mogao udaljenim uvidom u um probiti njegovu misao i ciljeve zbog toga što je Melkor ostao odlucan i nepokolebljiv u tome da zadrži svoj um zatvorenim: što se u fizickom svijetu oblikovalo kao tama i sjene koje su ga okruživale. No Manwe je, naravno, mogao koristiti, i koristio je, svoje ogromno znanje, svoje golemo iskustvo o stvarima i osobama, svoje sjecanje na ''Glazbu'' i svoju vlastitu mogucnost predviđanja te informacije svojih izvjestitelja.
Njega se, baš kao i Melkora, gotovo nikada ne vidi i za njega se nikada ne čuje vani ili dalje od njegovih dvora ili stalnog boravišta. Zbog čega je ovako? Nema nekog ozbiljnog razloga. Vlada je uvijek u Whitehall-u. Kralj Arthur se obicno nalazi u Camelotu ili Caerleonu te vijesti i pustolovine dolaze tamo i nastaju tamo. ''Stariji Kralj'' ocito nece biti u potpunosti poražen ili uništen, barem ne do nekog posljednjeg ''Ragnaroka''- koji je čak i za nas daleko u buducnosti pa ne može doživjeti pravih ''pustolovina''. No, ako ga zadržite kod kuce, pitanje bilo kakvog pojedinog događaja (s obzirom na to da tada ne može rezultirati u konacnom''šah-matu'') može ostati samo literarno iščekivanje. Čak i u zadnjem ratu protiv Morgotha, moć Valara predvodi Manweov sin Fionwe. Kada izvedemo Manwea, bit će to posljednja bitka i svršetak svijeta (ili ''Oskvrnjene Arde''), kako bi rekli Eldari.
(Morgothov ostanak ''kod kuce'' ima, kako je gore već opisano, posve drugi razlog: njegov strah od smrti ili čak povrede (nema doslovnog motiva, jer kako je sukobljen sa Starijim Kraljem, razlog ijednog njegovog pothvata je uvijek prijeporan)).
Melkor se ''utjelovio'' (kao Morgoth) zauvijek. Ucinio je to da bi mogao kontrolirati hroa, ''tkivo'' ili fizicku materiju Arde. Pokušao se s time poistovjetiti. Širi i opasniji postupak, iako iste vrste kao i Sauronove radnje s Prstenovima. Dakle, izvan Blaženog Kraljevstva, sva ''materija'' je vjerojatno imala ''Melkorov udio'', te su oni koji su imali tijelo koje se hranilo hroom Arde osjecali nešto poput tendencije, manje ili vece, prema Melkoru: nitko od njih nije bio u potpunosti slobodan od njega u svom utjelovljenom obliku te su njihova tijela utjecala na njihov duh.
No na ovaj nacin je Morgoth izgubio (ili zamijenio ili promijenio) veci dio svojih izvornih ''anđeoskih'' moci uma i duha dobivajuci užasan utjecaj na fizicki svijet. Zbog ovoga se protiv njega trebalo boriti uglavnom fizickom silom, te je ogromno uništenje materije bilo vjerojatna posljedica ikoje izravne borbe s njim, pobjednicke ili ne. Ovo je glavno objašnjenje stalnog oklijevanja Valara da uđu u izravnu borbu protiv Morgotha. Manweova zadaca i problem su bili mnogo teži od Gandalfovih. Sauronova, razmjerno manja, moć je bila koncentrirana; Morgothova široka moć je bila raspršena. Cjelina Međuzemlja je bila Morgothov Prsten, iako je njegova pažnja privremeno bila uglavnom usmjerena na sjeverozapad. Ako ne bi bio odmah uspješan, Rat protiv njega bi mogao završiti u svođenju čitavog Međuzemlja na kaos, moguce čak čitave Arde. Lako je reci: ''Bio je zadatak Starijeg Kralja da vlada Ardom i omoguci Eruovoj Djeci da na njoj žive bez ugnjetavanja.'' No, ovo je bila dilema Valara: Arda bi mogla biti oslobođena samo fizickom borbom; ali vjerojatan ishod takve bitke je bilo nepovratno uništenje Arde. Štoviše, konacno uništenje Saurona (kao moci koja upravlja zlom) se moglo postici uništenjem Prstena. Takvo uništenje Morgotha nije bilo moguce jer bi ono zahtijevalo potpuno raspadanje ''materije'' Arde. Sauronova moć nije bila (na primjer) u zlatu kao takvom, nego u posebnoj formi ili obliku napravljenom od određenog dijela iz cjeline zlata. Morgothova moć se raširila kroz Zlato, ako već nigdje apsolutno (jer on nije stvorio Zlato) onda je nigdje nije ni nedostajalo. (Upravo je ovo bio taj ''Morgoth-element'' u materiji bio preduvjet takvoj ''magiji'' i drugim zlima koja je Sauron vršio s njom i nad njom.)
Naravno, posve je moguce da su određeni ''elementi'' ili stanja materije privlacili posebnu Morgothovu pozornost (ponajviše, osim u dalekoj prošlosti, zbog razloga vezanih uz njegove vlastite planove). Na primjer, čini se da je svo zlato (u Međuzemlju) posebno naginjalo ''zlu''-ali srebro nije. Vodu se opisuje kao gotovo u potpunosti slobodnu od Morgotha. ( Ovo, naravno, ne znaci da neko određeno more, tok, rijeka, zdenac ili čak posuda vode nije mogla biti zatrovana ili onecišćena-kao što su sve stvari mogle biti.)

 
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Morfiwen
Posted: Sep 21 2007, 09:03 AM 795045


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Posts: 2442
Member No.: 489
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HOME-MORGOTH'S RING-V. MYTHS TRANSFORMED
VII.

(iii)
The Valar 'fade' and become more impotent, precisely in
proportion as the shape and constitution of things becomes
more defined and settled. The longer the Past, the more nearly
defined the Future, and the less room for important change
(untrammelled action, on a physical plane, that is not destruc-
tive in purpose). The Past, once 'achieved', has become part of
the 'Music in being'. Only Eru may or can alter the 'Music'. The
last major effort, of this demiurgic kind, made by the Valar was
the lifting up of the range of the Pelori to a great height. It is
possible to view this as, if not an actually bad action, at least as
a mistaken one. Ulmo disapproved of it.(4) It had one good, and
legitimate, object: the preservation incorrupt of at least a part of
Arda. But it seemed to have a selfish or neglectful (or despairing)
motive also; for the effort to preserve the Elves incorrupt there
had proved a failure if they were to be left free: many had
refused to come to the Blessed Realm, many had revolted and
left it. Whereas, with regard to Men, Manwe and all the Valar
knew quite well that they could not come to Aman at all; and
the longevity (co-extensive with the life of Arda) of Valar and
Eldar was expressly not permitted to Men. Thus the 'Hiding of
Valinor' came near to countering Morgoth's possessiveness by a
rival possessiveness, setting up a private domain of light and
bliss against one of darkness and domination: a palace and a
pleasaunce (5) (well-fenced) against a fortress and a dungeon.(6)
This appearance of selfish faineance in the Valar in the
mythology as told is (though I have not explained it or
commented on it) I think only an 'appearance', and one which
we are apt to accept as the truth, since we are all in some degree
affected by the shadow and lies of their Enemy, the Calum-
niator. It has to be remembered that the 'mythology' is repre-
sented as being two stages removed from a true record: it is
based first upon Elvish records and lore about the Valar and
their own dealings with them; and these have reached us
(fragmentarily) only through relics of Numenorean (human)
traditions, derived from the Eldar, in the earlier parts, though
for later times supplemented by anthropocentric histories and
tales.(7) These, it is true, came down through the 'Faithful' and
their descendants in Middle-earth, but could not altogether
escape the darkening of the picture due to the hostility of the
rebellious Numenoreans to the Valar.
Even so, and on the grounds of the stories as received, it is
possible to view the matter otherwise. The closing of Valinor
against the rebel Noldor (who left it voluntarily and after
warning) was in itself just. But, if we dare to attempt to enter the
mind of the Elder King, assigning motives and finding faults,
there are things to remember before we deliver a judgement.
Manwe was the spirit of greatest wisdom and prudence in Arda.
He is represented as having had the greatest knowledge of the
Music, as a whole, possessed by any one finite mind; and he
alone of all persons or minds in that time is represented as
having the power of direct recourse to and communication with
Eru. He must have grasped with great clarity what even we may
perceive dimly: that it was the essential mode of the process of
'history' in Arda that evil should constantly arise, and that out
of it new good should constantly come. One especial aspect of
this is the strange way in which the evils of the Marrer, or his
inheritors, are turned into weapons against evil. If we consider
the situation after the escape of Morgoth and the reestablish-
ment of his abode in Middle-earth, we shall see that the heroic
Noldor were the best possible weapon with which to keep Mor-
goth at bay, virtually besieged, and at any rate fully occupied,
on the northern fringe of Middle-earth, without provoking him
to a frenzy of nihilistic destruction. And in the meanwhile, Men,
or the best elements in Mankind, shaking off his shadow, came
into contact with a people who had actually seen and experi-
enced the Blessed Realm.
In their association with the warring Eldar Men were raised
to their fullest achievable stature, and by the two marriages the
transference to them, or infusion into Mankind, of the noblest
Elf-strain was accomplished, in readiness for the still distant,
but inevitably approaching, days when the Elves would 'fade'.
The last intervention with physical force by the Valar, ending
in the breaking of Thangorodrim, may then be viewed as not in
fact reluctant or even unduly delayed, but timed with precision.
The intervention came before the annihilation of the Eldar and
the Edain. Morgoth though locally triumphant had neglected
most of Middle-earth during the war; and by it he had in fact
been weakened: in power and prestige (he had lost and failed to
recover one of the Silmarils), and above all in mind. He had
become absorbed in 'kingship', and though a tyrant of ogre-size
and monstrous power, this was a vast fall even from his former
wickedness of hate, and his terrible nihilism. He had fallen to
like being a tyrant-king with conquered slaves, and vast obe-
dient armies.(8)
The war was successful, and ruin was limited to the small (if
beautiful) region of Beleriand. Morgoth was thus actually made
captive in physical form,(9) and in that form taken as a mere
criminal to Aman and delivered to Namo Mandos as judge -
and executioner. He was judged, and eventually taken out of the
Blessed Realm and executed: that is killed like one of the
Incarnates. It was then made plain (though it must have been
understood beforehand by Manwe and Namo) that, though he
had 'disseminated' his power (his evil and possessive and
rebellious will) far and wide into the matter of Arda, he had lost
direct control of this, and all that 'he', as a surviving remnant of
integral being, retained as 'himself' and under control was the
terribly shrunken and reduced spirit that inhabited his self-
imposed (but now beloved) body. When that body was des-
troyed he was weak and utterly 'houseless', and for that time at
a loss and 'unanchored' as it were. We read that he was then
thrust out into the Void.(10) That should mean that he was put
outside Time and Space, outside Ea altogether; but if that were
so this would imply a direct intervention of Eru (with or without
supplication of the Valar). It may however refer inaccurately *
to the extrusion or flight of his spirit from Arda.
In any case, in seeking to absorb or rather to infiltrate
himself throughout 'matter', what was then left of him was no
longer powerful enough to reclothe itself. (It would now remain
fixed in the desire to do so: there was no 'repentance' or
possibility of it: Melkor had abandoned for ever all 'spiritual'
ambitions, and existed almost solely as a desire to possess and
dominate matter, and Arda in particular.) At least it could not
yet reclothe itself. We need not suppose that Manwe was
deluded into supposing that this had been a war to end war, or
(* [footnote to the text] Since the minds of Men (and even of the
Elves) were inclined to confuse the 'Void', as a conception of the state
of Not-being, outside Creation or Ea, with the conception of vast
spaces within Ea, especially those conceived to lie all about the enisled
'Kingdom of Arda' (which we should probably call the Solar System).)
even to end Melkor. Melkor was not Sauron. We speak of him
being 'weakened, shrunken, reduced'; but this is in comparison
with the great Valar. He had been a being of immense potency
and life. The Elves certainly held and taught that fear or 'spirits'
may grow of their own life (independently of the body), even as
they may be hurt and healed, be diminished and renewed.(11) The
dark spirit of Melkor's 'remainder' might be expected, there-
fore, eventually and after long ages to increase again, even (as
some held) to draw back into itself some of its formerly
dissipated power. It would do this (even if Sauron could not)
because of its relative greatness. It did not repent, or turn finally
away from its obsession, but retained still relics of wisdom, so
that it could still seek its object indirectly, and not merely
blindly. It would rest, seek to heal itself, distract itself by other
thoughts and desires and devices - but all simply to recover
enough strength to return to the attack on the Valar, and to its
old obsession. As it grew again it would become, as it were, a
dark shadow, brooding on the confines of Arda, and yearning
towards it.
Nonetheless the breaking of Thangorodrim and the extrusion
of Melkor was the end of 'Morgoth' as such, and for that age
(and many ages after). It was thus, also, in a sense the end of
Manwe s prime function and task as Elder King, until the End.
He had been the Adversary of the Enemy.
It is very reasonable to suppose that Manwe knew that before
long (as he saw 'time') the Dominion of Men must begin, and
the making of history would then be committed to them: for
their struggle with Evil special arrangements had been made!
Manwe knew of Sauron, of course. He had commanded Sauron
to come before him for judgement, but had left room for
repentance and ultimate rehabilitation. Sauron had refused and
had fled into hiding. Sauron, however, was a problem that Men
had to deal with finally: the first of the many concentrations of
Evil into definite power-points that they would have to combat,
as it was also the last of those in 'mythological' personalized
(but non-human) form.
It may be noted that Sauron's first defeat was achieved by the
Numenoreans alone (though Sauron was not in fact overthrown
personally: his 'captivity' was voluntary and a trick). In the
first overthrow and disembodiment of Sauron in Middle-earth
(neglecting the matter of Luthien) (12)
Here the long version B breaks off, at the foot of a page. I give now
the conclusion of version A from the point where the texts diverge (see
p. 394 and note 6), beginning with the sentence corresponding to B
(p. 401) 'The last major effort, of this demiurgic kind, made by the
Valar...'
The last effort of this sort made by the Valar was the raising up
of the Pelori - but this was not a good act: it came near to
countering Morgoth in his own way - apart from the element of
selfishness in its object of preserving Aman as a blissful region to
live in.
The Valar were like architects working with a plan 'passed'
by the Government. They became less and less important
(structurally!) as the plan was more and more nearly achieved.
Even in the First Age we see them after uncounted ages of work
near the end of their time of work - not wisdom or counsel.
(The wiser they became the less power they had to do anything
- save by counsel.)
Similarly the Elves faded, having introduced 'art and
science'.(13) Men will also 'fade', if it proves to be the plan that
things shall still go on, when they have completed their func-
tion. But even the Elves had the notion that this would not be
so: that the end of Men would somehow be bound up with the
end of history, or as they called it 'Arda Marred' (Arda Sahta),
and the achievement of 'Arda Healed' (Arda Envinyanta).(14)
(They do not seem to have been clear or precise - how should
they be! - whether Arda Envinyanta was a permanent state of
achievement, which could therefore only be enjoyed 'outside
Time', as it were: surveying the Tale as an englobed whole; or a
state of unmarred bliss within Time and in a 'place' that was in
some sense a lineal and historical descent of our world or 'Arda
Marred'. They seem often to have meant both. 'Arda Unmarred'
did not actually exist, but remained in thought - Arda without
Melkor, or rather without the effects of his becoming evil; but is
the source from which all ideas of order and perfection are
derived. 'Arda Healed' is thus both the completion of the 'Tale of
Arda' which has taken up all the deeds of Melkor, but must
according to the promise of Iluvatar be seen to be good; and also
a state of redress and bliss beyond the 'circles of the world'.) (15)
Evil is fissiparous. But itself barren. Melkor could not 'beget',
or have any spouse (though he attempted to ravish Arien, this
was to destroy and distain'(16) her, not to beget fiery offspring).
Out of the discords of the Music - sc. not directly out of either
of the themes,(17) Eru's or Melkor's, but of their dissonance with
regard one to another - evil things appeared in Arda, which did
not descend from any direct plan or vision of Melkor: they were
not 'his children'; and therefore, since all evil hates, hated him
too. The progeniture of things was corrupted. Hence Orcs? Part
of the Elf-Man idea gone wrong. Though as for Orcs, the Eldar
believed Morgoth had actually 'bred' them by capturing Men
(and Elves) early and increasing to the utmost any corrupt
tendencies they possessed.
Despite its incomplete state (whether due to the loss of the con-
clusion of the fully developed form of the essay or to its abandonment,
see note 6) this is the most comprehensive account that my father
wrote of how, in his later years, he had come to 'interpret' the nature
of Evil in his mythology; never elsewhere did he write any such
exposition of the nature of Morgoth, of his decline, and of his
corruption of Arda, nor draw out the distinction between Morgoth
and Sauron: 'the whole of Middle-earth was Morgoth's Ring'.
To place this essay in sequential relation to the other 'philosophical'
or 'theological' writings given in this book with any certainty seems
scarcely possible, though Fionwe son of Manwe on p. 399 (for Eonwe
herald of Manwe') may suggest that it stands relatively early among
them (see pp. 151 - 2). It shows a marked likeness in tone to the many
letters of exposition that my father wrote in the later 1950s, and
indeed it seems to me very possible that the correspondence which
followed the publication of The Lord of the Rings played a significant
part in the development of his examination of the 'images and events'
of the mythology.(18)


HOME- Morgothov Prsten- V. Preobrazba mitova

VII.

(iii)
Valari ''blijede'' i postaju sve manje mocni, tocno u mjeri u kojoj oblik i ustroj stvari postaju više određeni i ustanovljeni. Što je duža Prošlost, to je Buducnost približnije određena i manje je mjesta za važnu promjenu (nekontrolirani postupak, na fizickom planu, koji nema destruktivnu svrhu). Kad je jednom dostignuta, ''Prošlost'' postaje dijelom ''Glazbe na pocetku''. Samo Eru može mijenjati ''Glazbu''. Posljednji veliki napor, ove polu-božanske naravi, kojeg su poduzeli Valari je bilo podizanje podrucja Pelorija na vecu visinu. Moguce je ovo smatrati, ako ne zaista lošim potezom, barem pogreškom. Ulmo to nije odobravao. Potez je imao jedan dobar i opravdan cilj: ocuvanje neokaljanim barem jednog dijela Arde. No čini se da je također postojao i sebican ili nemaran (ili ocajnicki) motiv; jer napor da se vilenjake ocuva neokaljanima bi se pokazao pogreškom ako bi im se dopustilo da ostanu slobodni: mnogi su odbili doci u Blaženo Kraljevstvo, mnogi su se pobunili i napustili ga. S druge strane su, s obzirom na ljude, Manwe i svi Valari veoma dobro znali da uopce ne mogu doci u Aman; te dugovjecnost (jednaka trajanju života Arde) Valara i Eldara namjerno nije dana ljudima. Tako se ''Skrivanje Valinora'' približilo odgovoru Morgothovoj posesivnosti sukobljenom posesivnošću, stvaranjem vlastitog podrucja svjetla i blagostanja nasuprot onom tame i strahovlade: palaca i zadovoljstvo (dobro ograđeni) nasuprot utvrde i tamnice.
Ovaj dojam sebicne besposlenosti Valara u prepricanoj mitologiji je (iako to nisam objasnio ili komentirao), mislim, samo ''dojam'' i to onaj kojeg smo spremni prihvatiti kao istinit jer na sve nas u nekom stupnju utjece sjena i laži Neprijatelja, lažnog optužitelja. Moramo se sjetiti da se ''mitologija'' predstavlja kao dvije faze udaljena od istinite bilješke: prvenstveno je utemeljena na vilenjackim bilješkama i saznanjima o Valarima te njihovim vlastitim odnosima s njima; a one su do nas došle (djelomicno) samo kroz ostatke numenorejskih (ljudskih) tradicija, izvedenih od Eldara u ranijoj povijesti, iako u kasnijim vremenima nadomještenih antropocentricnom poviješću i pricama. One su, uistinu, prenijete preko ''Vjernih'' i njihovih potomaka u Međuzemlju, no nisu mogle u cjelini izbjeci zatamnjenju prikaza s obzirom na neprijateljstvo buntovnih Numenorejaca prema Valarima.
I u tom slucaju, te temeljem prica u verziji u kojoj su prenijete, moguce je drukcije gledati na stvari. Zatvaranje Valinora za pobunjene Noldore (koji su otišli svojevoljno i to nakon što su bili upozoreni) je po sebi bilo pravedno. Ali, ako se usudimo pokušati prodrijeti u um Starijeg Kralja, pridodajuci motive i pronalazeci pogreške, postoje stvari kojih se moramo prisjetiti prije nego li donesemo presudu. Manwe je bio duh najvece mudrosti i razboritosti na Ardi. Prikazuje ga se kao onog koji je imao najvece znanje o Glazbi kao cjelini koje je posjedovao ikoji ograniceni um; i samo njega se, od svih osoba i umova, prikazuje kao onog koji se u to vrijeme mogao izravno utjecati i razgovarati s Eruom. Mora da je dohvatio s velikom jasnocom ono što čak i mi možemo samo nejasno naslucivati: to da je osobito bitno obilježje procesa ''povijesti'' na Ardi da se zlo konstantno javlja i da iz njega stalno proizlazi novo dobro. Poseban aspekt ovoga je čudan nacin na koji se zla onoga koji oskvrnjuje, ili njegovih nasljednika, pretvaraju u oružja protiv zla. Ako uzmemo u obzir situaciju nakon Morgothova bijega i ponovnog ustanovljenja sjedišta u Međuzemlju, zamijetit ćemo da su hrabri Noldori bili najbolje moguce oružje za držanje Morgotha u zamci, virtualno opkoljenog, i u najmanju ruku potpuno okupiranog na sjevernom pojasu Međuzemlja bez da ga se izazove na ispad nihilistickog uništenja. U međuvremenu su ljudi, ili najbolji elementi u ljudskoj vrsti, otresavši njegovu sjenu, došli u dodir s narodom koji je doista vidio i iskusio Blaženo Kraljevstvo.
Kroz udruživanje s ratujucim Eldarima, ljudi su se razvili do svojeg najvišeg stupnja i kroz dva braka je postignuto miješanje ili unos najplemenitije vrste Eldara u ljudsku vrstu kao priprema za, još uvijek udaljene, ali neizbježne, dane u kojima će vilenjaci ''izblijedjeti''.
Na posljednju intervenciju Valara fizickom silom, koja je završila razbijanjem Thangorodrima, se onda ne može u stvari gledati kao na suvišnu ili nepotrebno odgađanu, već precizno tempiranu. Intervencija se dogodila prije uništenja Eldara i Edaina. Morgoth je, iako podrucno gledano pobjednik, tijekom rata zanemario veci dio Međuzemlja; i time je ustvari bio oslabljen: i u moci i u ugledu (izgubio je i nije uspio vratiti jedan od Silmarila) i, iznad, svega umno. Postao je opsjednut ''kraljevanjem'', i makar je bio tiranin divovske velicine i monstruozne snage, ovo je predstavljalo duboki pad čak i u usporedbi s njegovom prijašnjom zlocom i mržnjom, te njegovim užasnim nihilizmom. Pao je na razinu kralja-tiranina s pokornim robovima i ogromnim poslušnim vojskama.
Rat je bio uspješan te se uništenje ogranicilo na malenu (nekada prekrasnu) regiju Belerianda. Dakle, Morgoth je ustvari zarobljen u fizickom obliku i u tom obliku, poput obicnog zlocinca, odveden u Aman i predan Namo Mandosu kao sucu- i izvršitelju kazne. Bilo mu je suđeno, s vremenom je odveden iz Blaženog Kraljevstva i pogubljen: to jest, ubijen kao jedan od Utjelovljenih. Tada je postalo ocito (iako su Manwe i Namo već prije to morali shvatiti) da je, iako je ''raširio'' svoju moć (svoju zlu, posesivnu i pobunjenicku volju) nadaleko i naširoko u materiju Arde, izgubio izravnu kontrolu nad njom, i da je sve što je ''on'', kao preživjeli ostatak cjelovitog bica, zadržao kao ''sebe'' i pod kontrolom bio stravicno propao i ponižen duh koji je nastanjivao njegovo samonametnuto (ali sada voljeno) tijelo. Kada je to tijelo uništeno on je oslabio i doslovno postao ''beskucnikom'', istovremeno na gubitku te ''bez utocišta'' kakvo je imao. Iščitavamo da je tada izbacen u Ništavilo. To bi trebalo znaciti da je stavljen izvan Prostora i Vremena, izvan sveukupne Ea-e; no ako bi to bilo tako, impliciralo bi izravnu Eruovu intervenciju (sa ili bez molitve Valara). Ipak se može, ne toliko precizno*, odnositi i na izbacivanje ili bijeg njegova duha s Arde.

*(bilješka uz tekst: S obzirom na to da su umovi ljudi (ili čak vilenjaka) bili skloni brkanju ''Ništavila'' s pojmom stanja Nebivanja, izvan Stvaranja ili Ea-e, sa slikom golemih prostora unutar Ea-e, pogotovo onih za koje se smatralo da leže posvuda u okruženju ''Kraljevstva Arde'' (koje bismo vjerojatno trebali zvati ''Suncevim Sustavom''))

U svakom slucaju, pokušavanjem apsorpcije ili radije infiltracije sebe kroz ''materiju'', ono što je ostalo od njega nije više bilo dovoljno da se ponovno utjelovi. (On će sada ostati odlucan u ideji da u tome uspije: Melkor je zauvijek napustio sve ''duhovne'' ambicije i postojao gotovo iskljucivo kao želja da posjeduje i dominira materijom, pogotovo Ardom.) Barem nije još bilo dovoljno da se utjelovi. Ne trebamo pretpostaviti da se Manwe zavaravao pretpostavkom da je ovo bio rat koji će dokrajciti ratovanje, ili čak dokrajciti Melkora. Melkor nije bio Sauron. Govorimo o tome da je bio ''oslabljen, propao, ponižen''; no to se misli u usporedbi s velikim Valarima. Bio je bice nezamislive moci i života. Vilenjaci su u svakom slucaju smatrali i poducavali da strah ili ''duhovi'' mogu proizaci iz njihova vlastitog života (neovisno od tijela) te istovremeno mogu biti ozlijeđeni i izlijeceni, umanjeni i obnovljeni. Zbog toga se moglo ocekivati da bi se taman duh Melkorova ''ostatka'', s vremenom i nakon dugo godina, ponovno uzdigao, čak (kao što su neki smatrali) ponovno u sebe upio nešto od prije raspršene moci. Ovo bi ucinio ( čak ako Sauron i ne bi mogao) zbog svoje relativne velicine. Nije se pokajao ni konacno okanio svoje opsesije, ali je opet zadržao ostatke mudrosti, tako da je još uvijek mogao indirektno, a ne posve slijepo, tragati za svojim ciljem. Pocivao je, pokušavao se izlijeciti, odvratiti pažnju drugim mislima, željama i izumima- no sve to samo zato da sakupi dovoljno snage za povratak napadu na Valare, te svojoj staroj opsesiji. Kako je opet rastao tako je postajao, kao što je bio, tamna sjena koja se nadvila nad granicama Arde i čeznula za njom.
U svakom slucaju, razaranje Thangorodrima i izbacivanje Morgotha je bio kraj ''Morgotha'' kao takvog u tom dobu (i mnogim kasnijim dobima). Stoga je to također na neki nacin bio i kraj Manweove osnovne funkcije i zadatka kao Starijeg Kralja, sve do Kraja. On je bio Protivnik Neprijateljev.
Razumno je pretpostaviti da je Manwe unaprijed znao (jer je mogao vidjeti kroz ''vrijeme'') da mora otpoceti Vladavina Ljudi i da će stvaranje povijesti tada biti povjereno njima: za njihovu borbu sa Zlom su poduzete posebne pripreme!
Manwe je, naravno, znao za Saurona. Zapovjedio je Sauronu da se pojavi pred njim kako bi mu se presudilo, ali mu je ostavio mogucnost pokajanja i konacne rehabilitacije. Sauron je odbio i skrio se. Tako je Sauron bio problem s kojim su se, u konacnici, morali nositi ljudi: prva od mnogih koncentracija Zla u ogranicenim centrima moci protiv kojih su se morali boriti kao i zadnji od onih ''mitoloških'' poosobljenih (ali ne i ljudskih) oblika.
Može se primijetiti da su Sauronu prvi poraz nanijeli Numenorejci sami (iako Sauron u stvari nije osobno bio zbacen: njegovo ''zarobljeništvo'' je bilo svojevoljno i prijevarno). U prvom zbacivanju i oduzimanju Sauronova tijela u Međuzemlju (zanemarujuci situaciju s Luthien)

Ovdje se prekida duga B verzija, na dnu stranice. Sad donosim zakljucak verzije A od mjesta na kojem se tekstovi razilaze (pogledaj str.394. i bilješku 6) pocinjuci s recenicom koja odgovara tekstu B (str. 401.) ''Posljednji veci pokušaj, ovakve polu-božanske vrste, kojeg su poduzeli Valari…''

Posljednji pokušaj ove vrste kojeg su poduzeli Valari je bilo uzdizanje Pelorija- no ovo nije bio dobar čin: približio se odgovoru Morgothu na njegov vlastiti nacin- izuzev nepostojanja elementa sebicnosti u njihovom cilju ocuvanja Amana blaženim podrucjem za život.
Valari su bili poput arhitekata koji su radili po planu kojeg je ''donijela'' Vlada. Postajali su sve manje i manje važni (strukturalno!) kako se plan sve više i više gotovo dostizao. Čak i u Prvom Dobu ih vidimo nakon nebrojenih godina rada, blizu svršetka svog vremena za rad- ali ne mudrosti ili savjetovanja. (Što su postajali mudriji to su imali manje moci da išta rade- osim savjetom.)
Jednako tako su i vilenjaci ''blijedjeli'' nakon što su prenijeli ''umjetnost i znanost''. Ljudi će također ''izblijedjeti'' ako se pokaže da je u planu da stvari nastavljaju postojati jednom kad su ispunile svoju funkciju. No čak su i vilenjaci imali dojam da nece biti ovako: da će kraj čovjecanstva biti na neki nacin povezan sa svršetkom povijesti, ili kako su to oni zvali ''Oskvrnjene Arde'' (Arda Sahta), te dostizanjem ''Izlijecene Arde'' (Arda Envinyanta). (Izgleda da nisu bili jasni ili precizni- kako su i mogli biti!- je li Arda Envinyanta bila stalno stanje uspjeha, u kojem se stoga moglo uživati samo ''izvan Vremena'', kao što je: gledanje na Pricu kao zaokruženu cjelinu; ili pak stanje neoskvrnjenog blaženstva unutar ''Vremena'' i na neki nacin linearnog i povijesnog nastavka našeg svijeta ili ''Oskvrnjene Arde''. Čini se da su često mislili na oboje. ''Neoskvrnjena Arda'' u stvari nije postojala, nego je ostala u zamisli- Arda bez Melkora, ili radije bez ucinaka njegovog postanka zlim; no ona je izvor iz kojeg se izvode sve ideje o redu i savršenstvu. ''Izlijecena Arda'' je tako oboje, i zakljucak ''Price o Ardi'' koja sadrži sva Melkorova djela, ali se također, u skladu s Iluvatarovim obecanjem, mora percipirati kao dobro; te također kao stanje povrata i blaženstva izvan ''granica svijeta''.)
Zlo se širi raspršivanjem. Ali po sebi je neplodno. Melkor nije mogao ''napraviti dijete'' ili imati ikakvu ženu (iako je pokušao silovati Arien, ovo je bilo zbog toga da ju uništi i okalja, a ne da zacne vatrenog potomka. Iz neslaganja u Glazbi- ne izravno iz ijedne od tema, Eruovih ili Melkorovih, nego iz njihove disonance u međusobnom odnosu- su se na Ardi pojavile zla bica koja nisu proizašla ni iz kojeg izravnog Melkorovog plana ili vizije: nisu bila ''njegova djeca''; i stoga su, s obzirom na to da svako zlo mrzi, mrzila i njega. Rađanje bica je bilo okaljano. Od Orkova? Dio ideje o vilenjacima-ljudima koji se izjalovio. Iako, što se tice Orkova, Eldari su vjerovali da ih je Morgoth zapravo ''uzgojio'' ranim zatocenjem ljudi (i vilenjaka), te povecanjem do vrhunca bilo kojih iskvarenih tendencija koje su imali.

Unatoč njenom okrnjenom stanju (ili zbog gubitka zakljucka u punini razvijenog oblika eseja, ili zbog njegovog napuštanja) ovo je najrazumljivija bilješka koju je moj otac napisao o tome kako je, u svojoj starijoj dobi, poceo ''tumaciti'' prirodu Zla u svojoj mitologiji; nigdje drugdje nije napisao ikakvo slicno objašnjenje Morgothove naravi, njegovog pada i njegovog kvarenja Arde, niti je izvukao razliku između Morgotha i Saurona:''cjelina Međuzemlja je bila Morgothov Prsten''.
Smjestiti ovaj esej s bilo kakvom sigurnošću u odnos slijeda prema drugim ''filozofskim'' ili ''teološkim'' napisima u ovoj knjizi se čini jedva mogucim, iako spomen Fionwea Manweovog sina na stranici 399.( zbog Eonwea, Manweovog vjesnika) može sugerirati da se datira relativno rano među njima (pogledaj str.151-2.). Pokazuje zamjetnu slicnost u tonu s mnogim pismima o izlaganju koja je moj otac napisao u kasnim pedesetima, i zaista mi se čini veoma mogucim da je dopisivanje koje je uslijedilo nakon objavljivanja Gospodara Prstenova igralo bitnu ulogu u razvoju njegovog preispitivanja ''likova i događaja'' iz mitologije.
 
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Maeglin Faelivrin
Posted: Sep 23 2007, 04:37 PM 795787


Rider on the Storm


Group: Members
Posts: 340
Member No.: 748
Joined: 12-November 06



Ako bi netko htio prevesti ovo bio bih mu jako zahvalan tongue.gif
unprijed zahvaljujem
user posted image
 
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Maeglin Faelivrin
Posted: Aug 5 2008, 12:43 PM 933819


Rider on the Storm


Group: Members
Posts: 340
Member No.: 748
Joined: 12-November 06



Posto nakon jako puno vremena nitko nje odgovorio uzeo sam
stvari u svoju ruku i otkrio da je ovaj tekst pjesma upucen Vardi,Elbereth Gilthoniel


A Elbereth Gilthoniel
O Elbereth Starkindler,
silivren penna míriel
white-glittering, slanting down sparkling like a jewel,
o menel aglar elenath!
the glory of the starry host!
Na-chaered palan-díriel
Having gazed far away
o galadhremmin ennorath,
from the tree-woven lands of Middle-earth,
Fanuilos, le linnathon
to thee, Everwhite, I will sing,
nef aear, sí nef aearon!
on this side of the Sea, here on this side of the Ocean![1]

A Elbereth Gilthoniel
O Elbereth Star-kindler,
o menel palan-díriel,
from heaven gazing afar,
le nallon sí di'-nguruthos!
to thee I cry now beneath the shadow of death!
A tíro nin, Fanuilos!
O look towards me, Everwhite![2]

A! Elbereth Gilthoniel!
O! Elbereth Starkindler,
silivren penna míriel
white-glittering, slanting down sparkling like a jewel,
o menel aglar elenath,
the glory of the starry host
Gilthoniel, A! Elbereth!
Starkindler, O! Elbereth!
We still remember, we who dwell
In this far land beneath the trees
The starlight on the western seas.[3]
 
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Meneldil
Posted: Aug 5 2008, 03:32 PM 933897


Perfection.


Group: Members
Posts: 5721
Member No.: 261
Joined: 6-November 04



QUOTE (Maeglin Faelivrin @ Sep 23 2007, 05:37 PM)
Ako bi netko htio prevesti ovo bio bih mu jako zahvalan tongue.gif
unprijed zahvaljujem
user posted image

Sori, nisam vidio prije no.gif doh.gif

Ali nije prijevod te pjesme unsure.gif Riječ je zapravo o prepricanom pocetku Silma na Quenyi, zapisanom Tengwarom yes.gif
 
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