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elrond
Posted: Aug 5 2008, 03:36 PM 933898


Vala


Group: Members
Posts: 20201
Member No.: 29
Joined: 9-February 03



dečki, off topic ste, ovdje su čisti prijevodi tolkienovih djela, a ne pitanja i zamolbe, stoga bilo bi dobro da se dogovorite u nekom drugom topicu a ovdje da sacuvamo samo prijevode yes.gif .....ako može nek mod izbriše ove postove...

Edited by elrond - Feb 20 2009, 10:02 AM
 
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azur
Posted: Apr 4 2009, 12:47 PM 1016503


Petitioner to the Council


Group: Members
Posts: 14
Member No.: 1967
Joined: 3-April 09



The History of Middle-earth: The Book of Lost Tales 1

FOREWORD.
The Book of Lost Tales, written between sixty and seventy
years ago, was the first substantial work of imaginative literature by J. R. R. Tolkien, and the first emergence in nar-
rative of the Valar, of the Children of Iluvatar, Elves and
Men, of the Dwarves and the Orcs, and of the lands in which
their history is set, Valinor beyond the western ocean, and
Middle-earth, the 'Great Lands' between the seas of east and
west. Some fifty-seven years after my father ceased to work
on the Lost Tales, The Silmarillion,* profoundly transformed
from its distant forerunner, was published; and six years have
passed since then. This Foreword seems a suitable opportu-
nity to remark on some aspects of both works.
The Silmarillion is commonly said to be a 'difficult' book,
needing explanation and guidance on how to 'approach' it;
and in this it is contrasted' to The Lord of the Rings. In Chap-
ter 7 of his book The Road to Middle-earth Professor T. A.
Shippey accepts that this is so ('The Silmarillion could never
be anything but hard to read', p. 201), and expounds his view
of why it should be. A complex discussion is not treated
justly when it is extracted, but in his view the reasons an:
essentially two (p. 185). In the first place, them is in The
Silmarillion no 'mediation' of the kind provided by the hob-
bits (so, in The Hobbit, 'Bilbo acts as the link between mod-
ern times and the archaic world of dwarves and dragons').

My father was himself well aware that the absence of hobbits
would be felt as a lack, were 'The Silmarillion' to be pub-
lished -- and not only by readers with a particular liking for
them. In a letter written in 1956 (The Letters of J. R. R.
Tolkien, p. 238), soon after the publication of The Lord of
the Rings, he said:
I do not think it would have the appeal of the L.R. -- no
hobbits! Full of mythology, and elvishness, and all that 'heigh
stile' (as Chaucer might say), which has been so little to the
taste of many reviewers.
In 'The Silmarillion' the draught is pure and unmixed; and
the reader is worlds away from such 'mediation', such a
deliberate collison (far more than a matter of styles) as that
produced in the meeting between King Theoden and Pippin
and Merry in the ruins of Isengard:
'Farewell, my hobbits! May we meet again in my house!
There you shall sit beside me and tell me all that your
hearts desire: the deeds of your grandsires, as far as you
can reckon them...'
The hobbits bowed low. 'So that is the King of Rohan! ' said
Pippin in an undertone. 'A fine old fellow. Very polite.'
In the second place, '
Where TheSilmarillion differs from Tolkien's earlier works is
in its refusal to accept novelistic convention. Most novels (in-
cluding The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings) pick a char-
acter to put in the foreground, like Frodo and Bilbo, and then
tell the story as it happens to him. The novelist of course is
inventing the story, and so retains omniscience: he can ex-
plain, or show, what is 'really' happening and contrast it with
the limited perception of his character.
These is, then, and very evidently, a question of literary
'taste' (or literary 'habituation') involved; and also a question
of literary 'disappointment' -- the '(mistaken) disappoint-
ment in those who wanted a second Lord of the Rings' to
which Professor Shippey refers. This has even produced a
sense of outrage -- in one case formulated to me in the words
'It's like the Old Testament!': a dire condemnation against
which, clearly, there can be no appeal (though this reader
cannot have got very far before being overcome by the com-
parison). Of course, 'The Silmarillion' was intended to move
the heart and the imagination, directly, and without peculiar
effort or the possession of unusual faculties; but its mode is
inherent, and it may be doubted whether any 'approach' to
it can greatly aid those who find it unapproachable.

Prevod:
Historija Međuzemlja: Knjiga izgubljenih priča 1


Predgovor

Knjiga izgubljenih priča, napisana prije 60 do 70 godina,bila je prva od značajnijih radova bujne mašte J.R.R. Tolkiena. Prvi je napisao priče koje govore o Valarima, o Djeci Iluvatarovoj, o Vilenjacima, Ljudima, o Patuljcima i Orcima, i o njihovim zemljama koje su njihovu historiju zapisali,o Valinoru iza zapadnog okeana, i Međuzemlju, „Velike zemlje“ između istočnih i zapadnih mora. Nakon pedeset i sedam godina moj otac je prestao sa radom na „ Izgubljenim pričama “, „ Silmarillion “, duboko transformiran od njegovog prethodnika, ali radovi bijahu objavljeni; i šest godina je prošlo od tada. Ovaj predgovor se čini kao pogodna prilika da se na oba djela daju primjedbe na neke aspekte.
Za Silmarillion se inače kaže da je „ teška “ knjiga, da trebaju objašnjenja i upute kako da joj se „priđe“, i da je drugačije od Gospodara Prstenova. U sedmom poglavlju knjige Put za Međuzemlje profesor T.A. Shippey prihvata da je to tako („Silmarillion ne može biti ništa drugo osim nečeg što je teško za čitanje“, str. 201), i on otkriva svoj stav o tome zašto bi to trebalo tako da bude. Zamršena i složena diskusija nije tretirana ispravno kad je izvojena, ali po njegovom mišljenju razlozi su: u biti su dva razloga (str.185). Na prvom mjestu, njih je u Silmarillionu bez ikakve „sumnje“ zavela jedna vrsta – Hobiti ( prema tome u knjzi „Hobiti“ , Bilbo predstavlja ličnost između modernog vremena i drevnog svijeta patuljaka i zmajeva).

Moj otac je i sam bio svjestan da bi se odsustvo hobita osjećalo kao nedostatak, kad je „Silmarillion“ bio objavljen – i nisu se oni posebno sviđali samo čitateljima. U pismu koje napisano 1956. godine
( J.R.R. Tolkienova pisma, str. 238), nedugo nakon objavljivanja Gospodara Prstenova, on je rekao:
Ja mislim da bi bilo žalbi na „Gospodar Prstenova“, da se nisu spominjali hobiti. Puni mitologije, života vilenjaka, ljudi, patuljaka i sav taj „veličanstveni stil“ (kao što je Chaucer volio da kaže),koji su bili tako mali da su ih kritikovali mnogi kritičari. U Silmarilionu plan je jednostavan i razumljiv; i čitaoc je daleko od „ medijacije“, daleko od zavjere (dalje od životnog stila) kao što je pokazano na sastanku između Kralja Theodena, Pippina i Merryja u rasulu Izengarda:
„ Zbogom, moji hobiti! Možda se ponovo sretnemo u mojoj kući! Sjednite tamo i recite mi šta vidite i želite, sve su to djela vaših djedova, koliko god vaš pogled može da dosegne.
Hobiti su se poklonili. „Znači to je Kralj Rohana“ tiho reče Pippin. Dobar čovjek. Vrlo ljubazan.
Na drugom mjestu,
gdje Silmarillion odstupa od Tolkienovih ranijih radova i odbija prihvatiti novelistički izgled. Većina novela ( uključujući „Hobiti“ i „Gospodar Prstenova“), stavlja u prvi plan jedan karakter, poput Frode i Bilbe, i onda priča priču o njihovim događajima i doživljajima. Pisac ,naravno, izmišlja priču, i zna sve o njoj. On može objasniti, i pokazati, šta se „stvarno“ događa i uporediti sa ograničenim shvatanjem njegovog karaktera.
Ovdje je ,naravno, bez ikakve sumnje upleteno pitanje književnog „ukusa“ (ili književnikove „navike“ ); i također pitanje književnog „razočarenja“ (pogrešnog shvatanja) – onih koji su htjeli drugi „Gospodar Prstenova“ kao što to profesor Shippey navodi. Ovo je čak proizvelo osjećaj bijesa – u jednom slučaju mi je zvučalo kao „To je kao Stari Testament“: grozna optužba koja jasno osuđuje tamo gdje optužbe ne može biti (kroz čitanje čitalac ne može biti jako daleko od savlađivanja optužbi). Naravno, „Silmarillion“ je imao namjeru da u našim srcima pobudi maštu , direktno, bez čudnih napora ili posjedovanja znanja sa fakulteta; ali način rada je svojstven, i nema sumnje da će bilo koji „pristup“ knjizi moći znatno pomoći onima koji smatraju da je sadržaj nedostižan i težak.

Edited by azur - Apr 10 2009, 09:13 PM
 
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Valarauco ramainen
Posted: Apr 4 2009, 02:23 PM 1016555


Far over Misty Mountains cold, to dungeons deep and caverns old


Group: Admin
Posts: 23107
Member No.: 8
Joined: 17-January 03



Azur, lijepo je vidjet da je neciji prvi post bas u Prijevodima wub.gif

Ipak, ovdje se ne komentira pa ne mozemo popricat o prijevodu, ali postoji topic u kojem mozemo yes.gif Zove se KOMENTIRANJE PRIJEVODA MEMBERA, u ovom je forumu, dolje malo nize niz stranicu u popisu topica... ajd navrati tamo pa napisi je li ovo tvoj prijevod ili si ga negdje nasao, i ima li toga jos klap.gif

Ima par problemcica u njemu, koje sam primijetio, pa bismo to usput tamo mogli i ispravit wink.gif
 
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BalrogOfMorgoth
Posted: Nov 7 2010, 04:21 PM 1137616


You were made to be ruled.


Group: Members
Posts: 430
Member No.: 2038
Joined: 27-January 10



Don't be too hard on me blush.gif

Ukažite mi na greške da se ne ponavljaju kasnije, i slobodno recite što mislite o prijevodu wink.gif

Posebna zahvala Menelu, jer mi je ukazao na greške i ispravio ih hug.gif

FOREWORD.
As is well known, the manuscripts and typescripts of The Lord of
the Rings were sold by J. R. R. Tolkien to Marquette University,
Milwaukee, a few years after its publication, together with those of
The Hobbit and Farmer Giles of Ham, and also Mr. Bliss. A long
time elapsed between the shipment of these latter papers, which
reached Marquette in July 1957, and that of The Lord of the Rings,
which did not arrive until the following year. The reason for this
was that my father had undertaken to sort, annotate, and date the
multifarious manuscripts of The Lord of the Rings, but found it
impossible at that time to do the work required. It is clear that he
never did so, and in the end let the papers go just as they were; it
was noted when they reached Marquette that they were 'in no
order'. Had he done so, he must have seen at that time that, very
large though the manuscript collection was, it was nonetheless
incomplete.
Seven years later, in 1965, when he was working on the revision
of The Lord of the Rings, he wrote to the Director of Libraries at
Marquette, asking if a certain scheme of dates and events in the
narrative was to be found there, since he had 'never made out any
full schedule or note of the papers transferred to you.' In this letter
he explained that the transfer had taken place at a time when his
papers were dispersed between his house in Headington (Oxford)
and his rooms in Merton College; and he also said that he now
found himself still in possession of 'written matter' that 'should
belong to you'. when he had finished the revision of The Lord of
the Rings he would look into the question. But he did not do so.
These papers passed to me on his death eight years later; but
though Humphrey Carpenter made reference to them in his
Biography (1977) and cited from them some early notes, I neglected
them for many years, being absorbed in the long work of
tracing the evolution of the-narratives of the Elder Days, the
legends of Beleriand and Valinor. The publication of Volume III
of 'The History of Middle-earth' was already approaching before I
had any idea that the 'History' might extend to an account of the
writing of The lard of the Rings. During the last three years,
however, I have been engaged at intervals in the decipherment
and analysis of The Lord of the Rings manuscripts in my possession
(a task still far from completed). It has emerged from this that the
papers left behind in 1958 consist largely of the earliest phases
of composition, although in some cases (and most notably in the
first chapter, which was rewritten many times over) successive
versions found among these papers bring the narrative to an
advanced state. In general, however, it was only the initial notes
and earliest drafts, with outlines for the further course of the
story, that remained in England when the great bulk of the papers went to Marquette.
I do not of course know how it came about that these particular
manuscripts came to be left out of the consignment to Marquette;
but I think that an explanation in general terms can be found
readily enough. Immensely prolific as my father was ('I found not
being able to use a pen or pencil as defeating as the loss of her beak
would be to a hen,' he wrote to Stanley Unwin in 1963, when
suffering from an ailment in his right arm), constantly revising,
re-using, beginning again, but never throwing any of his writing
away, his papers became inextricably complex, disorganised, and
dispersed. It does not seem likely that at the time of the transfer to
Marquette he would have been greatly concerned with or have had
any precise recollection of the early drafts, some of them supplanted
and overtaken as much as twenty years before; and
no doubt they had long since been set aside, forgotten, and
buried.
However this may be, it is self-evidently desirable that the
separated manuscripts should be joined together again, and the
whole corpus preserved in one place. This must have been my
father's intention at the time of the original sale; and accordingly
the manuscripts at present in my keeping will be handed over to
Marquette University.
The greater part of the material cited or described in this book is
found in the papers that remained behind; but the third section of
the book (called 'The Third Phase') constituted a difficult problem,
because in this case the manuscripts were divided. Most of
the chapters in this 'phase' of composition went to Marquette in
1958, but substantial parts of several of them did not. These parts
had become separated because my father had rejected them, while
using the remainder as constituent elements in new versions. The
interpretation of this part of the history would have been altogether
impossible without very full co-operation from Marquette,
and this I have abundantly received. Above all, Mr Taum Santoski
has engaged with great skill and care in a complex operation in
which we have exchanged over many months annotated copies of
the texts; and it has been possible in this way to determine the
textual history, and to reconstruct the original manuscripts which
my father himself dismembered nearly half a century ago. I record
with pleasure and deep appreciation the generous assistance that I
have received from him, and also from Mr Charles B. Elston, the
Archivist of the Memorial Library at Marquette, from Mr John
D. Rateliff, and from Miss Tracy Muench.
This attempt to give an account of the first stages in the writing
of The Lard of the Rings has been beset by other difficulties than
the fact of the manuscripts being widely sundered; difficulties
primarily in the interpretation of the sequence of writing, but also
in the presentation of the results in a printed book.
Briefly, the writing proceeded in a series of 'waves' or (as I have
called them in this book) 'phases'. The first chapter was itself
reconstituted three times before the hobbits ever left Hobbiton,
but the story then went all the way to Rivendell before the impulse
failed. My father then started again from the beginning (the
'second phase'), and then again (the 'third phase'); and as new narrative
elements and new names and relations among the characters
appeared they were written into previous drafts, at different
times. Parts of a text were taken out and used elsewhere. Alternative
versions were incorporated into the same manuscript, so
that the story could be read in more than one way according to the
directions given. To determine the sequence of these exceedingly
complex movements with demonstrable correctness at all points is
scarcely possible. One or-two dates that my father wrote in are
insufficient to give more than very limited assistance, and references
to the progress of the work in his letters are unclear and hard to interpret. Differences of script can be very misleading. Thus
the determination of the history of composition has to be based
very largely on clues afforded by the evolution of names and
motives in the narrative itself; but in this there is every possibility
of going astray through mistaking the relative dates of additions
and alterations. Exemplification of these problems will be found
throughout the book. I do not suppose for one moment that I have
succeeded in determining the history correctly at every point:
indeed there remain several cases where the evidence appears to be
contradictory and I can offer no solution. The nature of the
manuscripts is such that they will probably always admit of
differing interpretations. But the sequence of composition that I
propose, after much experimentation with alternative theories,
seems to me to fit the evidence very much the best.
The earliest plot-outlines and narrative drafts are often barely
legible, and become more difficult as the work proceeded. Using
any scrap of the wretched paper of the war years that came to hand
- sometimes writing not merely on the backs of examination
scripts but across the scripts themselves - my father would dash
down elliptically his thoughts for the story to come, and his first
formulations of narrative, at tearing speed. In the handwriting
that he used for rapid drafts and sketches, not intended to endure
long before he turned to them again and gave them a more
workable form, letters are so loosely formed that a word which
cannot be deduced or guessed at from the context or from later
versions can prove perfectly opaque after long examination; and
if, as he often did, he used a soft pencil much has now become
blurred and faint. This must be borne in mind throughout: the
earliest drafts were put urgently to paper just as the first words
came to mind and before the thought dissolved, whereas the
printed text (apart from a sprinkling of dots and queries in the face
of illegibility) inevitably conveys an air of calm and ordered
composition, the phrasing weighed and intended.
Turning to the way in which the material is presented in this
book, the most intractable problem lies in the development of
the story through successive drafts, always changing but always
closely dependent on what preceded. In the rather extreme case of
the opening chapter 'A Long-expected Party', there are in this
book six main texts to be considered and a number of abandoned
openings. A complete presentation of all the material for this one
chapter would almost constitute a book in itself, not to speak of a
mass of repetition or near-repetition. On the other hand, a succession
of texts reduced to extracts and short citations (where the
versions differ significantly from their predecessors) is not easy to
follow, and if the development is traced at all closely this method
also takes up much space. There is no really satisfactory solution
to this. The editor must take responsibility for selecting and
emphasizing those elements that he considers most interesting and
most significant. In general I give the earliest narrative complete,
or nearly complete, in each chapter, as the basis to which subsequent
development can be referred. Different treatment of
the manuscripts calls for different arrangement of the editorial
element: where texts are given more or less in full much use is
made of numbered notes (which may constitute an important part
of the presentation of a complex text), but where they are not the
chapter proceeds rather as a discussion with citations.
My father bestowed immense pains on the creation of The Lord
of the Rings, and my intention has been that this record of his first
years of work on it should reflect those pains. The first part of the
story, before the Ring left Rivendell, took by far the most labour
to achieve (hence the length of this book in relation to the whole
story); and the doubts, indecisions, unpickings, restructurings, and false starts have been described. The result is necessarily
extremely intricate; but whereas it would be possible to recount
the history in a greatly reduced and abbreviated form, I am
convinced that to omit difficult detail or to oversimplify problems
and explanations would rob the study of its essential interest.
My object has been to give an account of the writing of The Lord
of the Rings, to exhibit the subtle process of change that could
transform the significance of events and the identity of persons
while preserving those scenes and the words that were spoken
from the earliest drafts. I therefore (for example) pursue in detail
the history of the two hobbits who ultimately issued in Peregrin
Took and Fredegar Bolger, but only after the most extraordinary
permutations and coalescences of name, character, and role; on
the other hand I refrain from all discussion that is not directly
relevant to the evolution of the narrative.
In the nature of the book, I assume conversance with The
Fellowship of the Ring, and comparison is made throughout of
course with the published work. Page-references to The Fellowship
of the Ring (abbreviated FR) are given to the three-volume
hardback edition of The Lord of the Rings (LR) published by
George Allen and Unwin (now Unwin Hyman) and Houghton
Mifflin Company, this being the edition common to both England
and America, but I think that it will be found in fact that almost
all such references can be readily traced in any edition, since the
precise point referred to in the final form of the story is nearly
always evident from the context.
In the 'first phase' of writing, which took the story to Rivendell,
most of the chapters were title-less, and subsequently there was
much shifting in the division of the story into chapters, with
variation in titles and numbers. I have thought it best therefore to
avoid confusion by giving many of my chapters simple descriptive
titles, such as 'From Hobbiton to the Woody End', indicating the
content rather than relating them to the chapter-titles in The
Fellowship of the Ring. As a title for the book it seemed suitable to
take one of my father's own suggested but abandoned titles for the
first volume of The Lord of the Rings. In a letter to Rayner Unwin
of 8 August 1953 (The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, no. 139) he
proposed The Return of the Shadow.
No account is given in this book of the history of the writing of
The Hobbtit up to its original publication in 1937, aithough, from
the nature of its relationship to The Lord of the Rings, the
published work is constantly referred to. That relationship is
curious and complex. My father several times expressed his view
of it, but most fully and (as I think) most accurately in the course
of a long letter to Christopher Bretherton written in July 1964
(Letters no. 257).
I returned to Oxford in Jan. 1926, and by the time The Hobbit
appeared (1937) this 'matter of the Elder Days' was in coherent
form. The Hobbit was not intended to have anything to do with
it. I had the habit while my children were still young of inventing
and telling orally, sometimes of writing down, 'children's
stories' for their private amusement... The Hobbit was
intended to be one of them. It had no necessary connexion with
the 'mythology', but naturally became attracted towards this
dominant construction in my mind, causing the tale to become
larger and more heroic as it proceeded. Even so it could really
stand quite apart, except for the references (unnecessary,
though they give an impression of historical depth) to the Fall of
Gondolin, the branches of the Elfkin, and the quarrel of King
Thingol, Luthien's father, with the Dwarves....
The magic ring was the one obvious thing in The Hobbit that
could be connected with my mythology. To be the burden of a
large story it had to be of supreme importance. I then linked it
with the (originally) quite casual reference to the Necromancer,
whose function was hardly more than to provide a reason for
Gandalf going away and leaving Bilbo and the Dwarves to fend
for themselves, which was necessary for the tale. From The
Hobbit are also derived the matter of the Dwarves, Durin their
prime ancestor, and Moria; and Elrond. The passage in Ch. iii
relating him to the Half-elven of the mythology was a fortunate
accident, due to the difficulty of constantly inventing good
names for new characters. I gave him the name Elrond casually,
but as this came from the mythology (Elros and Elrond the two
sons of Earendel) I made him half-elven. Only in The Lord was
he identified with the son of Earendel, and so the greatgrandson
of Luthien and Beren, a great power and a Ringholder.
How my father saw The Hobbit - specifically in relation to 'The
Silmarillion' - at the time of its publication is shown clearly in the
letter that he wrote to G. E. Selby on 14 December 1937:
I don't much approve of The Hobbit myself, preferring my own
mythology (which is just touched on) with its consistent nomenclature
- Elrond, Gondolin, and Esgaroth have escaped out
of it - and organized history, to this rabble of Eddaic-named
dwarves out of Voluspa, newfangled hobbits and gollums (invented
in an idle hour) and Anglo-Saxon runes.
The importance of The Hobbit in the history of the evolution of
Middle-earth lies then, at this time, in the fact that it was published,
and that a sequel to it was demanded. As a result, from the
nature of The Lord of the Rings as it evolved, The Hobbit was
drawn into Middle-earth - and transformed it; but as it stood in
I937 it was not a part of it. Its significance for Middle-earth lies in
what it would do, not in what it was.
Later, The Lord of the Rings in turn reacted upon The Hobbit
itself, in published and in (far more extensive) unpublished
revisions of the text; but all that lies of course far in the future at
the point which this History has reached.
In the manuscripts of The Lord of the Rings there is extreme
inconsistency in such matters as the use of capital letters and
hyphens, and the separation of elements in compound names. In
my representation of the texts I have not imposed any standardization
in this respect, though using consistent forms in my own
discussions.


Prijevod blush.gif :


Povijest Međuzemlja ( svezak VI. - Povratak Sjene )


Predgovor.
Kako je poznato, rukopisi Gospodara Prstenova prodani su sveučilištu Marquette u Milwaukeeu nekoliko godina nakon njegova objavljivanja, zajedno s onima Hobita i Farmera Gilesa od Hama, te Mr. Bliss. Dugo vremena je prošlo između slanja starijih papira, koji su dospjeli na Marquette u Srpnju 1957., i onih Gospodara Prstenova koji nisu dospjeli do sljedeće godine. Razlog tomu bilo je to što je moj otac htio sortirati, napraviti bilješke i datirati raznolike rukopise Gospodara Prstenova, ali u to vrijeme nije bilo moguće obaviti potreban posao. Jasno je da to nikada nije učinio, i na kraju je pustio papire da odu nesređeni kakvi su bili. Bilo je primjećeno da papiri kada su stigli na Marquette, nisu bili uređeni. Da je ipak tako učinio, morao bi u dato vrijeme vidjeti da rukopisi, unatoč svojoj opširnosti, nisu bili kompletirani.

Sedam godina kasnije, 1965, kada je radio na preradi Gospodara prstenova, pisao je direktoru Knjižnica na Marqutteu, pitajući da li bi određene sheme datuma i događaja u tekstu mogle biti nađene ondje, jer "ja nikada nisam napravio puni popis papira poslanih Vama". U tom pismu objasnio je da je transfer bio za vrijeme kada su njegovi papiri bili raspršeni između njegove kuće u Headingtonu ( Oxsford ) i njegove sobe na Merton Collegeu, a također je naglasio da je u posjedu pisanih dokumenata koji bi trebali pripadati Vama nakon završetka prerade Gospodara Prstenova. Ali nikada nije završio.

Ti papiri došli su u moj posjed nakon njegove smrti 8 godina kasnije, ali iako je Humphrey Carpenter imao neke reference na njih u njegovoj Biografiji (1977) i citirao ih iz nekih prijašnjih nota, ja sam ih zanemarivao dugi niz godina, bijući okupiran dugim poslom, prateći razvoj priča Starih Dana, legende Belerianda i Valinora. Objava trećeg sveska Povijesti Međuzemlja se već približavala prije nego sam ja uopće i mislio da bi se "Povijest" mogla produžiti na zapis o pisanju Gospodara Prstenova. Tijekom zadnje tri godine, okušao sam se u intervalima na dešifriranje i analizu rukopisa Gospodara Prstenova u mom posjedu (zadatak još daleko od gotovog). Iz tog je proizašlo saznanje da se papiri ostavljeni u 1958. sastoje poglavito od najranijih faza kompozicije,iako u nekim slučajevima (pogotovo u prvom poglavlju, koje je puno puta promjenjeno) verzije koje slijede, nađene među ovim papirima uzdižu naraciju na unaprijeđeni nivo. U cijelosti, pak, samo su prve note i najraniji zapisi, sa tek obrisima budućeg tijeka radnje, ostali u Engleskoj kada je velika pošilja krenula za Marquette.

Ja naravno ne znam kako je došlo do toga da baš ovi rukopisi budu izostavljeni iz pošiljke Marquetteu, ali mislim da je objašnjenje veoma jednostavno. Izuzetno produktivan moj otac kakav je bio ("Nemogućnost korištenja olovke nalazim poražavajućim kako bi i gubitak vrata bio kokoši", napisao je Stanley Unwinu 1963, kada je trpio od teških bolova u desnoj ruci), konstantno revidirajući, ponovno koristeći i započinjajući ispočetka, ali nikada ne bacajući ništa od svojih papira, njegove bilješke postale su nevjerojatno zamršene, neorganizirane i raspršene. Ne čini se vjerojatno da je u vrijeme transfera na Marquette bio jako zabrinut sa ili imao ikakvo precizno sjećanje gdje su rani spisi, neki od njih zamjenjeni i do dvadeset godina prije i bez sumnje su dugo bili stavljeni sa strane, zaboravljeni i zakopani.
Kakogod to bilo, samo po sebi je poželjno da se odvojeni rukpisi spoje, te da se cjelovite bilješke sačuvaju na jednom mjestu. To je sigurno bila namjera moga oca za vrijeme originalne prodaje i prema tome, rukopisi koji su sada u mom posjedu će biti predani Marquette Universitiyu.

Veći dio materijala citiranog ili opisanog u ovoj knjizi je nađen u papirima koji su ostali, ali treća sekciija knjige (zvana "treća faza") predstavlja težak problem, jer u ovom slučaju rukopisi su podjeljeni. Većina poglavlja u ovoj "fazi" kompozicije je poslana na Marquette 1958. ali pojedini djelovi nekolicine njih nisu. Ti dijelovi su razdvojeni jer ih je moj otac odbacio, koristeći ostatak kao konzistentne elemente u novoj verziji. Interpretacija ovog dijela povijesti bi bila skroz nemoguća bez pune suradnje Marquettea, koju sam primio. Iznad svega, G. Taum Santoski se upustio s velikom vještinom i brigom u složenu operaciju u kojoj smo tjekom mnogih mjeseci izmjenili kopije teksta s bilješkama i bilo je nemoguće na ovaj način odrediti tekstualnu povjest i rekonstruirati originalni rukopis koji je moj otac sam odbacio skoro prije pola stoljeća. Bilježim sa zadovoljstvom i dubokom zahvalnošću velikodušnu pomoć koju sam primio od njega, isto kao i od gospodina Charles B. Elstona, Arhivista Memorijalne Knjižnice na Marquetteu, od gospodina John D. Rateliffa i od gospođice Tracy Muench.

Ovaj pokušaj da dam sliku o početnim stazama pisanja Gospodara Prstenova se suočio s mnogim poteškoćama osim činjenice da su rukopisi bili u djelovima; poteškoće ponajviše u interpretaciji slijeda pisanja, ali također u prezentaciji rezultata u gotovoj knjizi.

Nakratko, pisanje se nastavilo u seriji "valova" ili (kako ih ja zovem u ovoj knjizi) "faza". Prvo poglavlje je bilo rekonstruirano tri puta prije nego što su hobiti uopće napustili Hobbiton, ali je priča nastavila sve do Rivendella-a prije nego je nagon za pisanjem izgubljen. Moj je otac zatim počeo ispočetka ("druga faza") i zatim ponovno ("treća faza"); i kako su se novi naracijski elementi i nova imena i veze među likovima stvarali napisani su i u prijašnjim bilješkama, na drugim mjestima. Dijelovi teksta su izbačeni i iskorišteni drugdje. Alternativne verzije su umetnute u isti rukopis, tako da je priča mogla biti čitana u više od jednog smjera, prema danim instrukcijama. Odrediti slijed ovih jako kompleksnih pomaka sa određenom točnošću je gotovo nemoguće. Jedan ili dva datuma koje je moj otac zapisao su nedostatni da daju više osim ograničene pomoći i reference na progres rada u njegovim pismima su nejasne i teške za interpretirat. Razlike u skriptama mogu biti jako zbunjujuće. Zato određivanje određenih djelova povijesti pisanja mora biti temeljeno uglavnom na tragovima koje dobivamo evolucijom imena i motiva same priče, ali tako postoji velika mogućnost pogrešnog tumačenja relativnih datuma dodataka i promjena. Dokazi tih poteškoća pronaći će se diljem knjige. Ne smatram da sam uspieo u određivanju povijesti točno na svakom dijelu; naprotiv, ima nekoliko slučajeva u kojima se čini da ima suprotnosti i ja nemogu ponuditi nikakvo rješenje. Priroda tih rukopisa je takva da će vjerojatno uvijek postojati drugačije interpretacije teksta. Ali slijed kompozicije koju ja ovdje iznosim, nakon mnogobrojnih eksperimentiranja sa alternativnim teorijama, po meni najbolje odgovara dokazima.

Najraniji obrisi priče su često jedva čitljivi, i postaju teži kako je posao napredovao. Koristeći bilo kakve komade papira ratnih godina koji su mu došli pod ruku - ponekad ne pišući na poleđini skripte nego i po skripti samoj - moj otac bi istresao misli za priču koja će doći, i prve formulacije daljne priče, velikom brzinom. U rukopisu koji je koristio za brze skice i nacrte, koji nisu bili namjenjeni za trajanje dugo prije nego bi ih preokrenuo i dao im bolju formu, pisma su tako slabo formirana da riječ koja se ne može zaključiti iz konteksta, ili iz kasnijih verzija, može se pokazati nerazumljivom i nakon dugog pregleda; i ako bi, kako je često radio, koristio meku olovku, riječi bi često bile mutne i blijede. To se mora imati na umu; najraniji obrisi su stavljeni na papir u žurbi onako kako bi riječi došle na um i prije nego bi se misao izgubila, dok isprintani tekst neizbježno donosi dojam mirne i uređene kompozicije, u kojoj su fraze izvagane i namjeravane.

Okrečući se na način na koji je u ovoj knjizi materijal prezentiran, najveći problem je u razvoju priče kroz dijelove, koji su se uvijek mjenjali, ali i ovisili o prethodnima. U ekstremnom slučaju prvog poglavlja "Dugo očekivana zabava", u ovoj su knjizi šest glavnih tekstova i određen broj napuštenih početaka. Kompletna prezentacija cijelog materijala za to poglavlje bi bila skoro knjiga sama za sebe, ne govoreći o velikom broju ponavljanja i skorog ponavljanja. U drugu ruku, jedan dio tekstova, smanjenih na citate i izvatke (gdje se verzije malo razlikuju od prethodnika) nije lako pratiti, i ako je razvoj praćen preblizu, i ta metoda oduzima previše mjesta. Ne postoji zadovoljavajuće rješenje za to. Urednik mora preuzeti odgovornost odabiranja dijelova za koje smatra da su najvažniji i najinteresantniji. U cijelosti ja dajem najraniju završenu priču, ili skoro gotovu, u svakom poglavlju, kao bazu na koju se nastavak može referirati. Drugačiji tretman rukopisa poziva na drugačije aranžmane editorijalnog elementa: gdje su tekstovi prenošeni u cijelosti, puno je brojčanih nota iskorišteno (koje mogu predstavljat važan dio prezentacije kompletnog teksta), ali gdje nisu, poglavlja se nastavljaju kao diskusije s citatima.

Moj otac se beskrajno namučio pišući Gospodara Prstenova, i moja namjera je bila da ovaj zapis njegovih prvih godina rada odražava tu muku. Prvi dio priče, prije nego je Prsten napustio Rivendell, je bio najteži za napisati (iz tog razloga duljina ove knjige u relaciji sa cijelom pričom), i dvojbe, neodlučnost, restrukturiranje i lažni početci su opisani. Rezultat je jako kompliciran; ali kako bi bilo moguće opisati povijest u reduciranoj i smanjenoj formi, uvjeren sam da izostavljanje detalja, ili pojednostavljivanje problema i objašnjenja bi orobile proučavanje suštinskog zanimanja.

Moj cilj je bio dati zapis o pisanju Gospodara Prstenova, da prikažem suptilni proces promjene koji bi mogao promijeniti značenje događaja i identitete osoba, usput čuvajući scene i riječi koje su bile prisutne od najranijih zapisa. Tako (za primjer) prenosim u potpunosti povijest dva hobita, iz kojih će na kraju izaći Peregrin Took i Fredegar Bolger, ali samo nakon najneobičnijih promjena imena, karaktera i uloge; s druge strane suzdržavam se od bilo kakve diskusije koja nije direktno važna za evoluciju priče.

Po prirodi ove knjige, pretpostavljam da je čitatelj upoznat sa Prstenovom družinom i usporedbe s njom su napravljene kroz cijelu knjigu. Reference na stranice Prstenove Družine (označene FR) su dane tvrdo ukoričenoj verziji Gospodara Prstenova (LR) objavljene od strane George Allen i Unwin (sada Unwin Hyman) i Houghton Mifflin Company-a, jer je to bila uobičajena verzija u Engleskoj i Americi, ali mislim da mogu biti pronađene u bilo kojoj ediciji, jer je precizna pozicija na koju se u finalnom obliku priče poziva gotovo uvijek očita iz konteksta.
U "prvoj fazi" pisanja, koja je odvela priču do Rivendella, većina je poglavlja bila bez naslova, a kao posljedica toga bilo je mnogo mjenjanja u dijeljenju priče na poglavlja, sa varijacijom u nazivu i brojevima. Zato sam smatrao najbolje davati poglavljima jednostavna opisna imena, poput "Od Hobbitona do Šumovitog Kraja", koji ukazuju na sadržaj, radije nego njihovo povezivanje sa naslovima u Prstenovoj Družini. Kao naslov za knjigu činilo se prikladno uzeti jedan od prvotnih naziva moga oca za prvi dio Gospodara Prstenova. U pismu Rayner Unwinu 8. Kolovoza 1953 (Pisma J.R.R Tolkiena broj 139) predložio je Povratak Sjene.

U ovoj knjizi nema izvještaja o pisanju Hobita do njegova originalna objavljivanja 1937, iako, zbog njegove veze s Prstenovom Družinom, objavljeni rad je konstantno spominjan. Ta veza je zanimljiva i kompleksna. Moj otac je nekoliko puta izrazio svoje mišljenje o njoj, ali najpunije (i kako ja mislim) najtočnije u toku pisanja dugog pisma Christopheru Brethertonu, napisanog u Srpnju 1964 (Pisma broj 257)

Vratio sam se na Oxford u Siječnju 1926, i dok se Hobit pojavio (1937) ta "materija Starih Dana" je bila u usklađenoj formi. Radnja Hobita nije bila namijenjena imati ikakve veze s njom. Imao sam naviku, kada su moja djeca još bila mala, izmišljati i pričati im priče, ponekad zapisujući "dječje priče" za njihovu zabavu... Hobit je napisan s namjerom da bude jedan od njih. Nije imao potrebne veze sa "mitologijom", ali prirodno je postao privučen premo toj dominantnoj konstrukciji u mom umu, rezultirajući s tim da je priča postala veća i junačkija kako se nastavljala. Unatoč tome mogla je stajati sama za sebe, osim referenci (nepotrebno, iako daju dojam povijesne dubine) na Pad Gondolina, vilenjačke kuće, i svađu Thingola, Luthienina oca s Patuljcima...
Magični prsten je bila jedna očita stvar koja se mogla povezati sa mojom mitologijom. Kako je bio teret velike priče morao je biti od velike važnosti. Tako sam ga spojio sa (originalno) usputnom referencom na Nekromanta, čija je funkcija bila jedva malo više od te da da Gandalfu izgovor za odlaženje i ostavljanje Bilba i Patuljaka da se brinu sami za sebe, što je bilo bitno za priču. Iz Hobita su također dovedena pitanja Patuljaka, Durina, njihovog predka, Morie i Elronda. Odlomak u III. poglavlju u kojem se povezuje sa Poluvilenjacima iz mitologije je bila sretna slučajnost, zbog teškoće čestoga izmišljanja novih dobrih imena za likove. Dao sam mu ime Elrond usput, ali kako je to dolazilo iz mitologije (Elros i Elrond su dva sina Earendilova) učinio sam ga poluvilenjakom. Tek u Gospodaru je bio identificiran kao Earendilov sin, i tako praunuk Luthien i Berena, velika sila i Prstenonosac.

Kako je moj otac vidio Hobita - posebno u odnosu sa Silmarillionom - u vrijeme njegova objavljivanja jasno je vidljivo iz pisma koje je napisao G.E. Selby 14. Prosinca 1937 :

Ne odobravam Hobita, preferirajući svoju mitologiju (koja je samo dotaknuta) sa konzistentnim izmišljanjem imena - Elrond, Gondolin i Esgaroth su pobjegli iz tog - i organiziranu povjest, nego ovu zbrku patuljaka s Edajskim imenima, novih hobita i golluma (izmišljenog u zadnji čas) i Anglo Saxonskih runa.

Važnost Hobita u povijesti evolucije Međuzemlja leži u činjenici da je objavljena i da je tražen nastavak. Kao rezultat toga, iz Gospodara Prstenova, kako je evoluirao, Hobit je uvučen u Međuzemlje - i preobrazio ga, ali kako je stajalo u 1937., nije bio dio njega. Njegov značaj leži u tome što će učiniti, ne zbog onog što jest.
Kasnije, Gospodar Prstenova je zauzvrat reagirao na Hobita samog, u objavljenoj i (daleko opširnije) neobjavljenoj reviziji teksta, ali sve to naravno leži u dalekoj budućnostu na mjestu na koje je Povijest sada dospjela.

U rukopisima Gospodara Prstenova postoji ekstremna nepažljivost što se tiče velikih slova i odvajanja elemenata u sastavljenim imenima. U mojoj prezentaciji teksta, nisam vršio nikakvu standardizaciju u tom pogledu, iako koristim konzistentne forme u mojim osobnim diskusijama.

Edited by BalrogOfMorgoth - Nov 17 2010, 07:28 PM
 
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Valarauco ramainen
Posted: Nov 7 2010, 04:55 PM 1137622


Far over Misty Mountains cold, to dungeons deep and caverns old


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ne stignem sad citat, nakratko sam uletio doh.gif Je li ovo ona verzija koji si meni dao, il si jos radio na tome? unsure.gif
 
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